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TV cartoon media violence

effects on children

Sha KK

on 28 June 2013

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Transcript of TV cartoon media violence

Why are we here?
The theories are:
1- The Social Learning theory
2- The Cultivation theory

The social learning theory proposed by Albert Bandura in 1973. His theory added a social element, arguing that people can learn new information and behaviours by watching other people.

Known as observational learning (or modelling), this type of learning can be used to explain a wide variety of behaviours.

Cultivation theory was first proposed by Gerbner & Gross (1976).
Heavy viewers are exposed to more violence and therefore are effected by the Mean World Syndrome, the belief that the world is a far worse and dangerous place than it actually is.

By contrast, catharsis models suggest that aggression is primarily a biological drive that requires expression (Lorenz, 1963).

Catharsis models suggest that media violence may provide an outlet or release for aggressive drives.

As such, people who consume violent media would be expected to become less aggressive.

Many media violence researchers today take a dim view of the catharsis hypothesis (Bushman, 2002).
It is known that children’s exposure to media violence plays an important role in the etiology of violent behavior.

The media is too lenient with the violent or explicit material it is allowed to air on television.

Parents are not strict enough when it comes to the amount of violent material they allow their children to watch.

Every exposure to violent increases the chances that someday that a child will behave more violently than they otherwise would (Dr. L. Rowell Huesmann, 2013).
1) To determine the relationship between media
violence and the effect on children development.

2) To study the effect of media violence (TV)
towards children.
Media violence can encourage children to learn and imitate aggressive behavior and attitudes.

Media violence can cultivate fearful or pessimistic attitudes in children about the non-television (real) world.

Media violence can desensitize children to real life violent.
It is undeniable fact that, most home have at least a television at home. And importantly, more families have televisions than telephones.

Before the age of 4, children are unable to distinguish between facts and fantasy while watching television and may view violence as ordinary scenes.

Children watch approximately 28 hours of television a week, more than they spend in school (Beresin, V. E, 2013).

The typical American child will view more than 200,000 acts of violence, including more than 16,000 murders before turning 18.
TV display 812 violent acts per hour, children’s programming, particularly cartoons, displays up to 20 violent acts hourly (Beresin, V. E, 2013).

Media can contribute to an aggressive culture, people who are already aggressive use the media as further confirmation of their beliefs and attitudes, in which they are reinforced through media content (Goeble, 2013).

A study by Keprta (2006) which was done in a laboratory setting have tested for ‘aggressive behaviour’ by showing TV programs with violent episodes. Close to 1/3 of the group living in high-aggression environments think that most people in the world are evil, a perception reinforced by media content (Goeble. J, 2013).
Nearly 2 out of 3 TV programs contained some violence, 2 averaging about 6 violent acts per hour.

Fewer than 5% of these programs featured an anti-violence theme or pro-social message emphasizing alternatives to or consequences of violence.

Violence was found to be more prevalent in children’s programming (69%) than in other types of programming (57%) (Henry. J, 2012).
Media Content Analysis:

Neuendorf (2002) describes content analysis as “the primary message centered methodology”.

Content analysis is used to study a broad range of ‘texts’ from transcripts of interviews and discussions in clinical and social research to the narrative and form of films, TV programs and the editorial and advertising content of newspapers and magazines.

Content analysis is a research method that uses a set of procedures to make valid inferences from text (Weber, 1990)
Research Objective (1):

To determine the relationship between media violence and the effect on children development.

The National Riffle Association (NRA) blamed the media for promoting violent video games and movies and then cited these phenomena as the primary causes of mass violence.

When kids marinate in media steeped in acts of aggression, it can increase anti-social activity and bullying, and decrease empathy for victims of violence (Common Sense Media, 2012).

There has been an increase in the amount and severity of violent acts observed by children through the media, including TV, movies, computer games and videotapes.
Research Objective (2):

To study the effect of media violence (TV) towards children.

Exposure to violent TV can and does influence children’s feelings, attitudes and behavior.

Prolonged exposure to TV violence is one of the factors which lead to children being more aggressive in both short and long term.Some children enjoy and develop an appetite in viewing violent material.

Continual exposure to media violence increases the likelihood that children will be desensitized to real violence.Age and gender are important influences on the nature of the effects, with younger children likely to be more susceptible to learn from TV.
What parents can do?
:: Watch TV with your children
:: Turn the program off
:: Limit viewing
:: Use TV program guides
:: Encourage children to be critical of the message encountered when watching TV
Let's Start

* Television can be profoundly influential in shaping an impressionable child or adolescent's values, attitudes, perceptions, and behaviours.

* Young children do not process information the same way as adult.

* They do not have the experience or judgment to evaluate what they see.

* There are two(2) theories and a model: Catharsis model, which are found closely related to the study.
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