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Hospital Acquired Infections

by: Sarahlynn Knechel and Kelsey Hendler
by

Kelsey H.

on 9 June 2011

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Transcript of Hospital Acquired Infections

Hospital Acquired Infections Interview with Collette Hendler RN, MS, CIC Goal of her job is to prevent hospital associated infections such as:
Catheter associated urinary tract infections
Central line related blood stream infections
Surgical site infections
Ventilator acquired pneumonia
Hospital acquired pneumonia How infections are prevented:
1. Educating staff on how to prevent infection
2. Keeping surveillence of blood, urine and wound cultures
3. Give each floor an infection rating
4. Report any cases to the state and the Center for Disease Control and prevention Hospital-acquired infections, Nonsocomial infections and Hospital-onset infections are now all called Healthcare-associated infections (HAI), which are infections not present and without evidence of incubation at the time of admission to a healthcare setting (WebMD). The infections are the invasion of colonizing pathogens and are usually viral, bacteria or fungal pathogens. Types of
of Infection There are two types of sources of infections, endogenous (body sites that typically inhabit microorganisms) and exogenous (sites that are seperate from the patient). The
Problem Increased length of stay
Mortality
Increased healthcare costs
Can be prevented Some statistics:
In 2002 there was an estimated 1.7 million hospital accquired infections in the U.S.; 99,000 cases caused death
In 2009, the CDC released that hospital accquired infections had an overall annual direct medical cost between $28 and $45 billion Bacteria Causing Infection Common bacteria include:
Enterococcus spp.
Escherichia coli
Pseudomonas spp.
Staphylococcus aureus Major & Common Sites for Infection: Bibiography http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/967022-overview#a0104 Surgical Site Infection (SSI)
Clostridium difficile Infection (C. dif.)
Central Line-associated Bloodstream Infection (CLABSI)
Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infection ( CAUTI)
Ventilator-associated Pneumonia (VAP) SSI Endogenous Examples:
-Nasopharynx, GI, Genitourinary tracts
Exogenous Examples:
-Visitors, Medical Personnel,
Healthcare Environment, and Equipment Cause: Germs enter bloodstream through central line, specifically a cathetar
Symptoms: fever, chills, soreness around catheter
Prevention: using an antiseptic on the patient, inserting the catheter in a vein that is low risk Clostridium
Difficile Risk Factors: Cause: extended use of antibiotics or exposure to contaminated surfaces
Symptoms: Diarrhea , loss of appetite, fever, nausea
Prevention: using proper hand hygeine, proper sterilization of surfaces (patient baths, thermometers, etc.) CLABSI -Severity of illness
-Immune System Statis
-Length of stay CAUTI VAP Cause: germs enter through the ventilator and move into the patient's lungs
Symptoms: cough, chills, fatigue, fever, headache Cause: long-term use of a urinary cathetar
Symptoms: infection of the urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra)
Prevention: correct use, insertion and up-keep of urinary cathetars 5% of patients contract a HAI
In 1999 11.4% of patients conracted a HAI in the PICU and11.9% of patients contracted a HAI in the NICU. Pneumonia and Urinary tract infections are most common in children, while urinary tract infections are most common in adults. Higher risks for Pediatric Patients:
-Under I year
-Low birth weight
-In the PICU or NICU Cause: occurs at the surgical site if bacteria touches skin or gets into tissue


Symptoms: fever, redness around surgical site, drainage of cloudy fluid from surgical wound http://www.cdc.gov/HAI/index.html http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol7no2/wenzel.htm http://www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu/~sabedon/biol2053.htm https://www.sharklet.com/wp-content/themes/sharklet/pdfs/Fact-Sheet-HAIs.pdf The
Controversy -271 people a day die
-1.8 million patients suffer annually
-4th leading cause of death
-kills 99,000 people a year 1974- 2% of staph infections were MRSA
2003- 57% of staph infections were MRSA HAI kill more than AIDS, breast cancer and auto accidents combined 3/4 of patients rooms are contaminated with MRSA and VRE http://www.cdiffsupport.com/aboutcdiff.html Diagnosis: stool sample test
Expectation: for most it clears up in a
few weeks
Treatment: most use a antibiotic Prevention: cleansing with anitseptic fluid from surgeon's hand to elbows, hair removal at surgical site, take antibiotics Surgical Site Infections •Staphylococcus aureus (often MRSA)
•Coagulase-negative staphylococci
•Gram-negative bacilli
•Enterococcus
•Streptococcus sp.
•Anaerobes
•Candida species http://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/ub/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540533/all/Surgical_Site_Infections__SSI_ Infection in the
digestive system Ventilator Associated Pneumonia Central Line-associated
Bloodstreat Infection Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infection Prevention: Keep the patient's bed raised, remove the patient from the ventilator as soon as possible, clean the inside of the patient's mouth
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