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An Introduction to Fracking and Water Recycling

This presentation introduces the practice of hydraulic fracturing and the way frac water should be treated for reuse

Chris Miller

on 30 November 2012

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Transcript of An Introduction to Fracking and Water Recycling

How Does Fracking Work? What's in Frac Fluid? Where does all that water come from? Surface Waterways and underground aquifers like lakes like this What else is in the fluid when it flows back out of a well? That depends where the well was drilled BAKKEN In the Bakken Formation, drillers produce Heavy Oil Heavy oil flowback water has a lot of iron and chlorides MARCELLUS In the Marcellus formation,
drillers harvest natural gas and crude oil Which makes for high levels of Barium & Strontium EAGLE
FORD BARNETT In the Eagle Ford formation
drillers produce Natural Gas This flowback water contains high levels of Boron Barnett drillers also produce Natural Gas but their flowback has extremely high levels of dissolved solids So you see, flowback water composition differs by geography Which is not just environmentally irresponsible Such variety is too difficult for municipal
wastewater treatment facilities to manage so drillers started disposing of it deep underground, way below the natural water table Completely removing those fluids
from the water cycle but outright negligent An Introduction to Fracking and Water Recycling The right way to handle used frac water is to RECYCLE it So how do you recycle frac water? Lots of technologies have been used for frac water treatment Some have tried Settlement Clarification Settlement means allowing heavy particles to sink to the bottom of a pit or tank but the oil in frac water keeps solids in suspension which is the exact opposite of what you want to happen So, is settlement a good option for treating frac water? not really Others have tried Oxidation Technologies Oxidation technologies kill bacteria, but don't remove particulates or dissolved metals and frac water has a TON of particulates and dissolved metals So, does it make sense to rely solely on Oxidation to treat frac water? nope Then there's the Thermal Technologies Thermal technologies (evaporation, distillation, cavitation) apply heat to separate water from pollutants but they require a lot of energy to operate, which makes them cost prohibitive So, are thermal technologies the answer for generating reusable frac water? Negatory What about Reverse Osmosis, isn't that what we use for our drinking water? Well, yes. But a lot of other treatment stages are required before you can send water through an RO system The same goes for frac water, you've got to get the solids out before you can even consider using Reverse Osmosis Not to mention, Reverse Osmosis is extremely energy intensive and only yields a small amount of reusable water So what technology makes the most sense for generating reusable frac water? Well, the right technology fulfills these requirements: 1. It can process large volumes of wastewater - millions of gallons a day 3. It's cost competitive with water disposal prices 2. It easily handles wide variations in water composition 4. It's easy to deploy in remote, rugged terrains The right technology for the job looks like this This is the Integrated Treatment System (ITS) It's a combination of Chemical pre-treatment and Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) Which has a lot of good implications Remember these requirements? Well, it does all of those And much more Intrigued? Learn more at www.EcologixSystems.com What is Fracking? Hydraulic Fracturing "Fracking" is a technique used to release petroleum, natural gas (shale gas, tight seam gas, and coal gas) or other substances found in deep underground rock formations, for extraction The first use of hydraulic fracturing was in 1947, but the modern technique, "slickwater horizontal fracking" was first used in 1998 in the Barnett Shale in Texas Lots of people are completely dependent on aquifer water for drinking, irrigation, and growing livestock How could they live without it?
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