Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

No description
by

anjoo anna

on 22 November 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

CREDITS
Anjoo Anna S.J.
Asish Kailas
Meenu S. Chandran
Namitha S.S.
Navya V.S.
Shameer A.


BUILDING TECHNOLOGY ASSIGNMENT- I
SEASONING OF TIMBER
NEWLY FELLED TREE CONTAINS 50% OF ITS MASS AS WATER OR SAP
THIS SAP WILL REDUCE THE LIFE
WATER IS TO BE REMOVED BEFORE THE TIMBER USED FOR ENGINEERING PURPOSE
TO REMOVE SAP, SEASONING IS USUALLY DONE
VARIOUS SEASONING METHODS ARE AVAILABLE TODAY
OBJECTIVES
DECREASE WEIGHT OF TIMBER AND THUS TO LOWER COST OF TRANSPORT AND HANDLING
IMPART HARDNESS, STIFFNESS, STRENGTH AND BETTER ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE
INCREASE RESISTING POWER OF TIMBER
MAINTAIN SIZE AND SHAPE OF COMPONENTS OF TIMBER
MAKE TIMBER EASILY WORKABLE AND TO FACILITATE OPERATIONS DURING CONVERSION
MAKE TIMBER FIT FOR RECEIVING TREATMENT OF PAINTS, PRESERVATIVES AND VARNISHES
MAKE TIMBER SAFE FROM ATTACK OF FUNGI AND INSECTS
MAKE TIMBER SUITABLE FOR GLUING
REDUCE TENDENCY OF TIMBER TO CRACK, SHRINK AND WARP
ALLOW TIMBER TO BURN READILY IF USED AS FUEL

NATURAL SEASONING ARTIFICIAL SEASONING


DEFECTS IN TIMBER
Conversion
Fungi
Insects
Natural forces
Seasoning

Foundation
1. SEASONING OF TIMBER
2. DEFECTS IN TIMBER

METHODS OF SEASONING
NATURAL SEASONING
TIMBERS ARE CUT INTO LONG RECTANGULAR PIECES
THEY ARE ARRANGED HORIZONTALLLY OR VERTICALLY
PLATFORM OF STACK IS MADE SLIGHTLY HIGHER, ABOUT 300mm
GAPS FOR PASSAGE OF ARE LEFT BETWEEN SUCCESSIVE TWO LAYERS BY MEANS OF SPACERS(35*25-50*35 mm)
ALL MEMBERS OF A PARTICULAR LAYER ARE OF SAME THICKNESS-OTHERWISE CHANCES OF CRACKS,WARPS etc
LENGTH OF STACK IS EQUAL TO LENGTH OF TIMBER PIECE. WIDTH AND HEIGHT OF STACK ARE RESTRICTED TO 1.5 m AND 3m.
MINIMUM DISTANCE BETWEEN ADJACENT STACKS SHALL BE ATLEAST
60O mm AND MININIMUM DISTANCE BETWEEN ADJACENT LAYERS
SHALL BE 25 mm.
KEPT FOR WEEKS
STACK MUST BE PROTECTED FROM RAINS, FAST BLOWING WINDS, EXTREME SUNLIGHT
AIR SEASONING
ADVANTAGES
ECO FRIENDLY
ONLY INITIAL COST
LESS MAINTENANCE COST
NO NEED OF SKILLED SUPERVISION
NEED MORE TIME
CAN’T BE CONTROLLED, SINCE THE PROCESS IS NATURAL
CHANCES OF INSECT ATTACK
CAN’T REDUCE MOISTURE TO DESIRED LEVEL


DISADVANTAGES
ARTIFICIAL SEASONING
1)BOILING
TIMBER IMMERSED IN HOT WATER AND BOILED FOR 3-4 hrs.
VERY QUICK METHOD
THEN DRIED UNDER A SHED
REDUCES SHRINKAGE AND PERIOD OF SEASONING
IT AFFECTS ELASTICITY & STRENGTH
COSTLY

2) CHEMICAL SEASONING
SALT SEASONING
IMMERSED IN CHEMICALS
THEN SEASONED IN ORDINARY WAY

CHEMICAL TREATMENT
TO PREVENT INSECT ATTACK SPECIAL CHEMICAL PROCESSES ARE DONE TO TIMBER PIECES
CHEMICAL INJECTION

CHEMICAL INJECTION
BORAX-BORIC ACID 2:1 RATIO
FOR 100kg OF WATER, 3kg OF THE MIXTURE
BORIC ACID – BORAX MIXTURE IS LESS HARMFUL TO SOIL

CHEMICAL INJECTION
TIMBER STACKS FILLED IN THE PROCESSING MACHINE
VACUUM IS CREATED ARTIFICIALLY INSIDE CHAMBER
THIS SUCKS THE MIXTURE KEPT BENEATH THE CHAMBER
PRESSURE OF 70-80kg APPLIED FOR 2hrs
REMAINING OF THE MIXTUE IS DRAINED OUT BY OPENING TWO VALVES
EXCESS WATER HAS TO BE DRAINED OUT BY MEANS OF VACUUM PROCESS AGAIN FOR 5 MINUTES
BOILS THE TIMBER FOR 15 DAYS
A BASE OF 6 INCH HEIGHT ARE MADE
16mm SPACERS ARE PROVIDED BETWEEN EACH LAYER FOR PROPER AIR CIRCULATION
HOT AIR FROM THE BURNER ARE CIRCULATED THROUGH THE FAN
THE FAN ROTATES FOR 3 DAYS IN CLOCKWISE DIRECTION
THE NEXT 3 DAYS IN ANTI CLOCKWISE DIRECTION-TO PREVENT BENDING
MOISTURE CONTENT IN CHEMICAL TREATED TIMBERS ARE 50-55%
DUE TO BURNING MOISTURE CONTENT FILLS THE ROOM,WHICH ARE DRAINED OUT THROUGH PROPER CHANNELS

3)ELECTRICAL SEASONING
RESISTANCE OF THE WOOD INCREASES AS IT DRIES,RESULT IN THE PRODUCTION OF HEAT
VERY COSTLY-UNECONOMICAL

4)KILN SEASONING
STATIONARY KILN
PROGRESSIVE KILN
COMPARTMENT KILN
ENTIRE PROCESS COMPLETES IN ONE CHAMBER

MANY SEASONING CHAMBERS
EACH CHAMBER WITH DIFFFERENT TEMPERATURE
CONTROL
AT CHARGING CHAMBER TEMP- LOW
AT DISCHARGING CHAMBER TEMP- HIGH
SEASONS IN LARGE SCALE
THOUGH COSTLY, GOOD FOR SEASONING

WATER SEASONING
I.DEFECTS DUE TO CONVERSION
Chip mark- Caused by planing machine

Defect due to conversion of timber -Ordinary sawing Tangential sawing
II. DEFECTS DUE TO FUNGI
Sap of wood stained to bluish colour by fungi

Fungi removes cellulose compounds from wood

Fungi feed on wood and convert it to powder form
Occurs in damp situations like kitchen, toilets and in improperly ventilated rooms
Unseasoned soft and sap wood easily attacked
Occurs if not properly stored
Absence of sunlight. dampness, presence of sap, stagnant air and warmth favours dry rot
Caused by charring, painting unseasoned wood
Prevented by using well seasoned timber
Damaged portion is to be completely removed and unaffectd portion shall be painted with copper sulphate

1)Blue stain
2)Brown rot
3)Dry rot
4)Heart rot
Formed when a branch has come out of a tree
Heart wood exposed to the attack of atmospheric agents
Tree becomes weak
Gives hollow sound when struck with a hammer

5)Sap stain
Fungi do not bring complete decay of timber
They feed on cell contents of sap wood
Sap wood loses its colour
Occurs when moisture content is above 25%

6)White rot
Fungi attack lignin of wood
Wood assumes the appearance of a white mass consisting of cellulose compounds

III.DEFECTS DUE TO INSECTS
1)Marine borers
Found in salty water
Wood lose colour and strength
Make holes or bore tunnels in wood for taking shelter
Not feed on wood



2)Termites(White ants)
Found in salty water
Wood lose colour and strength
Make holes or bore tunnels in wood for taking shelter
Not feed on wood
IV. DEFECTS DUE TO NATURAL FORCES
1) Radial shakes
Fine, irregular, and numerous
Occur when tree is exposed to Sun for seasoning after being felled down.
Run from short distance from bark towards centre.
Follow direction of annual ring and run towards pith



2) Cup shake
Caused by rupture of tissue in a circular direction
Curved crack
Separates partly one annual ring from the other
Develops due to non-uniform growth or due to excessive bending of a growing tree during a cyclonic weather
Covers only portion of ring


3)Ring shakes
When cup shake cover the entire area
4)Heart shake
Occur at the centre of cross section of tree
Extend from pith to sap wood in the direction of medullary ray
Cracks occur due to shrinkage of interior parts of tree which is approaching maturity
Heart shake divides the tree cross section into two to four parts.
5)Star shake
Cracks extend from bark towards sap wood
Wider at the outer-narrower at the inner
Occur due to extreme heat or severe frost during growth period
TIMBER IS CUT IN DESIRED SIZE FULLY IMMERSED FLOWING WATER
THICKER END AT THE UPSTREAM
2-4 WEEKS
TAKEN OUT DRIED UNDER ORDINARY CONDITION
WEAKENS THE TIMBER

6)Wind crack
Occurs when wood is exposed to atmospheric agencies
Its exterior surface shrinks
Such shrinkage causes cracks

V. DEFECTS DUE TO SEASONING
When a piece of timber has spirally distorted along it length

2) Bow
Indicated by the curvature formed in the direction of length of timber
3) Spring
Curvature formed in its own plane
TIMBER INDUSTRIAL UNITS VISITED
S.K.P. TIMBERS, KILLIPPALAM
MURUKKUM VEETTIL SAW MILL,KOLLAM
G.T. ENGINEERING SAW MILL, KOCHU VELI
S.K.P TIMBERS, KOCHU VELI
M.S.K. TIMBERS, KOCHU VELI
SPICE WOODS, KOCHU VELI


G.T. ENGINEERING SAW MILL, KOCHU VELI
S.K.P. TIMBERS, KOCHUVELI
ANJILI

PADAK

TEAK

VENGA
M.S.K. TIMBERS, KOCHU VELI
VIOLET(MALAYSIAN WOOD)

CHEMICAL TREATMENT CHAMBER
KILN SEASONING
THANK YOU
MURUKKUM VEETTIL SAW MILL, KOLLAM
S.K.P. TIMBERS, KILLIPPALAM
1)Twist
S.K.P. TIMBERS, KOCHUVELI
S.K.P TIMBERS,KILLIPALAM
M.S.K TIMBERS,KOCHU VELI
KALAI RIVER
MURUKKUM VEETIL SAWMILL
MURUKKUM VEETIL SAWMILL
MURUKKUM VEETIL SAWMILL
MURUKKUM VEETIL SAWMILL
MURUKKUM VEETIL SAWMILL
MURUKKUM VEETIL SAWMILL
S.K.P TIMBERS,KOCHU VELI
G.T ENGINEERING SAWMIL L,KOCHU VELI
SHAMEER'S HOUSE
G.T. ENGINEERING SAWMILL,KOCHU VELI
G.T. ENGINEERING SAW MILL, KOCHU VELI
MURUKKUM VEETTIL SAW MILL
MURUKKUM VEETTIL SAW MILL
MURUKKUM VEETTIL SAW MILL
MURUKKUM VEETTIL SAW MILL
G.T. ENGINEERING SAW MILL, KOCHU VELI
BOILING

CHEMICAL SEASONING

ELECTRICAL SEASONING

KILN SEASONING

WATER SEASONING

Our Sincere Thanks To....
Prof. Dr.Suja R
Full transcript