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Transcript of Educational Psychology
-Title I students did achieve better in math and reading, however the scores were not enough to close the gap between these students and those performing at the national average. Prospects
-A major study of the effects of compensatory programs funded in elementary and middle schools under Title I and those not.
-Found that there was a difference between schools of similar situations (low-income families/communities).
-Those schools with the program had a significant difference in scores in classrooms than without it. Chapter 9: Accommodating Instruction to Meet Individual Needs Stephanie Zarakas and Diana Cruz Regrouping (for Reading and MAthematics Between-Class Ability Grouping Early intervention programs have been found to keep children from falling behind. Robert Slavin Elements of Effective Instruction How are Students Grouped to Accommodate Achievement Differences? Contd. How are Students Grouped to Accommodate Achievement Differences? QAIT Within-Class Ability Grouping -Group students within performance classes
-Example: Third grade class may have three different study groups: The Rockets (3-1), The Stars (3-2) and the Planets (4-1) Individualized Instruction -Tailoring instruction to a student's specific needs Technology in Education -Word processors, electronic spreadsheets, and presentation software are the most used technology teachers use today: -CD-Rom: databas including photographs, clip art, illustrations, music and sometimes videos.
-Videodiscs: Includes videos, films, pictures, and music.
-Digital photographs can be used as a stimulus or illustration as well. Technology for administration: Teachers use technology to:
-sending information to parents
-logging student information, attendence, and achievment. Educational Programs for At-Risk Students -While any student can succeed, any student can fail Problems with Pull-out Programs -A type of Title I program, pull-out programs take students with poor achievement in reading (and other subjects) out of their regular education classes and placed with a special Title I teacher who provides remedial. Research on the Effects of Title I Two Major Studies: Carroll's Model of School Learning -John Carroll: "A Model of School Learning" -Describes teaching in terms of: time management, resources, and activites to ensure student learning -Proposed that learning is a theory of function of: 1) Time spent on learning
2) Time needed to learn Quality of Instruction: The degree in which presentation of information helps students learn effectively. (Curriculum based) Appropriate levels of instruction: The degree to which the teacher makes sure students are ready to learn a new lesson. Incentive: The degree to which the teacher makes sure studetns are motivated to work and learn Time: The degree to which students are given enough time to learn the material -Divides students based on measured ability of each subject.
-Ex: Highest level, 7-1
-Research shows mixed results:
-(slight) benefits for high-track classes
-Virtually no benefits for low-track classes Untracking -Students in mixed ability groups held to high standards
-Given ways for students to reach goals and standards -Students are in mixed-ability classes most of the day
-Assigned to reading and/or math classes in the basis of their performances in these subjects. Nongraded (Cross-Age Grouping) Elementary Schools -Programs, generally at the primary level, that combine children of different ages in the same class
-Ex: Ages 5-7 and ages 6-8 in the same classrooms. Retention Keeping a student back a grade in order to improve test scores. Peer Tutoring: One student teaches another (Two types) 1) Cross-age tutoring: When the tutor is several years older than the student
2) Same-age tutoring: The tutor and student are the same age Adult Tutoring: -One on one child to adult tutoring is one of the most effective tutoring methods Differentiated Instruction -An approach that adapts content, level, pace, and products of instruction to accomodate the needs of diverse students in regular classes
-Emphasizes that all students can reach high standards
-Ex: A paper assigned on President Lincoln is assigned... However the teacher provides different materials (such as books) at different levels. -Word processing (Desktop publishing): using a computer to create, edit, and print documents.
-Spreadsheets: computer programs that convert raw data into graphs, charts and other data summaries.
-Databases: a computer program that stores information to be referred to at a later time.
-Hypertext and Hypermedia: used to search a database by clicking a word or picture for more detailed or related information. Computer-Assisted Instruction -Practice and drill software -Drill and practice: Practice on skills needed (math, science, reading, etc.
-Tutorial programs: presents and teaches new material and corrections on testing.
-Instructional games: simple exploitations of drill and practice in game-format.
-Simulation software: an interactive model of some sort of reality (ex: The Sims)
-Problem-Solving programs: programs developed in order to increase critical thinking skills Internet -A growing telecommunications network of computers around the world that communicate electronically
-Allows students to:
-communicate with other students Multimedia projects: students design, plan, and produce a product or performance integrating media objects such as graphics, videos, animation, and sound. Instructional Television -Embedded multimedia: brief segments of video content threaded into lessons. Interactive Whiteboard: -A large interactive touch-screen display board -Teachers and students are able to:
-Draw/write on the whiteboard using a special pen or a finger
-Use virtually all computer based programs
-Students can use wireless response systems(or clickers) to enter answers to questions posed by teachers and have them immediately registered. -Students at risk are subject to because of factors in backgrounds and lives Education programs for at-risk students fall into three categories: 1) Compensatory Education: Designed to prevent or re-mediate learning problems among students from low-income families or attend school in low-income communities
2) Early Intervention Programs: Designed to prevent problems in students before they happen. Usually targeted at infants and toddlers.
3) Special Education: Serves children who have more serious learning problems/disabilities and/or physical/psychological problems. Title I -A federally funded compensatory education program that gives money to schools to provide extra services to students from low-income families who are having trouble in school.
-These funds go directly into helping these students, not into the teachers' salaries or other school funds. -Generally, there is little, if no, coordination between regular teachers and Title I teachers, so material presented is inconsistent and unstructured.
-Some schools place the Title I teacher directly in the classroom with the regular teachers so that two teachers are present and available. This has proven to benefit students very little. Pull-out Programs Early Intervention Programs These programs focus on infant stimulation, parent training, and other services on children from birth to the age of five. Comprehensive School Reform Programs School wide approaches that introduce research-based strategies into every aspect of school of school functions including (but not limited to):
-parent involvement Example: Reading Recovery is a program that provides one-on-one tutoring to first graders who are not performing adequately by specially-trained teachers Success for All -A program that focuses on preventions and early intervention in middle schools serving disadvantaged programs.
-Provides research based reading programs for preschool through eighth grade. James Comer's School Developmental Program Emphasizes building connections with parents and communities and organizing school staff into collaborate teams to create engaging, effective instruction. After-School and Summer Programs -After School Programs combine academic activities with another activity, such as sports or drama. -Summer school programs/sessions are a last chance for many students to avoid being held back a grade