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Data, information, knowledge and processing 1

Data, information, knowledge and processing 1
by

Adnan Salik

on 18 September 2013

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Transcript of Data, information, knowledge and processing 1

DATA, information, knowledge, and processing
Data
Data is the raw facts and figures before they have been processed.
It has no meaning.
12111985
Data plays a big part in our lives, anything that is written or spoken is made up of data. If you break words down you eventually, at the bottom of the pile, find data.
(Random series of letters and numbers)
Examples of data in our daily life, through sound and visual forms of data.
Example
Key Facts
data can be alphanumeric characters (letters and numbers), sound or graphics
data is raw facts and figures before it has been processed
data has no meaning
Information
Information is made up by taking data and processing it. processing is performing some action on the data. By doing this the data will be given a meaning.
Formula-
how data can become information
Information= Data + [Structure] + [Context] + Meaning
In some cases , the data (raw facts and figures) does not need to have a structure and a context in order to become information. However, it is always better to know the complete formula.
Keywords
Data-
the raw facts and figures
Structure-
how the data is presented. Are the numbers actually numbers or should they be read as text? Should the data be organized in any way (e.g. grouped by numbers or characters)? What, if any, encoding system has been used?
Context-
an environment where our prior knowledge and and understanding can make sense of the data.
Meaning-
data in the correct structure and placed within the context.
Knowledge-
the application of information to a situation.
The application of information to a situation.
This is applying our knowledge with information to a situation for our understanding.
Examples of converting data into information
5+7=
(cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr
Data
Structure
Context
Meaning
12102005
12/10/2005
UK date
Date of hotel room booking
31 32 34 32 31
Numbers
Celsius
Temperature over 5 days in Venice
SKBL10
First 2 letters - type of garment
Second 2 letters - colour
Last 2 numbers - size
A shop stock code
A black skirt, size 10
1
selected from a scale of 1-4
How enjoyable was the film? 1 being good,
4 being bad
The film was good
Meaning
Knowledge
For people to be able to use information they must be able to recognize, extract and pass it on. If information is only known by one person and is not passed on to anyone else then its value is limited.
Some information needs to be kept secure and if it became known then it could cause problems, for example:
secret service intelligence
business information
Representation methods to convey meaning
Another restriction is the language barrier. If information is presented in one particular language then someone who does not understand that language might have difficulty acquiring the information.
People who are disabled are likely to be restricted in acquiring information. This will depend on their disability, for example people who have visual (seeing) or aural (hearing) problems may have problems acquiring information if it is in the wrong format.
It is not possible to give all information in all formats. Some decision has to be made which formats to use within each situation.
It can be difficult to select and justify different methods(known as representation methods) of conveying information for different situations. The main representation methods are:
text (including writing)
graphics (including pictures)
sound (including voice)
moving pictures (animation or video)
light-emitting diode (LED)
Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. Such as:
text-clear to understand but need to be able to understand the language and read
Graphics- multilingual (do not need language to understand an image but can be confusing)Sound- no fixed position but not good in large areas due to lack of volume
Moving pictures- lots of information conveyed but problems if sound
LED-can be used in noisy places but need to be able to see the lights
Data on its own is meaningless. When we add context, structure and meaning to data we get information.
Knowledge is the application of that information to a situation - in other words, putting the information to use.
For example:
Data: 46,54
Information: Scores for team 1 and team 2, respectively, in a pub quiz.
Knowledge: Team 2 won.
It is easiest to think of knowledge as being the action that you need to take or a general rule you can determine from the information.
For example:
"I know i need to win the quiz."
"How do you know?"
"Because the quiz master just told me that team 1 got 46."
This is taking information and applying it to acquire knowledge.
Information is based on Certainties. There is a formula that allows us to determine where the information has come from and how it is derived. It has a context, a structure and raw data. Knowledge can change. It does not mean that every time it will or does, but it can change. More information can be added to our knowledge and as we add more information we revise our knowledge.
Using Information
Data-
The amber light is the data.
Information-
The information is that you will need to stop.
Knowledge-
The knowledge is how to stop the vehicle you are driving and when you need to start braking to stop the vehicle where you need it to.
Individual pieces of information will affect the knowledge that we have of the current situation and affect the action that we take (in this example, when to brake and with how much forces, whether to be aware of possible aquaplaning or skidding, etc.).
Different data types (Boolean, real, integer, string, date/time)
The fundamental building blocks, the facts and figures, are made up of alphanumeric characters.
An alphanumeric character is any character that can be displayed on a computer screen. It could be a letter, number or symbol.
Alphanumeric characters can be grouped into different data types.
A data type is the sort of alphanumeric character that can be allocated. There are five data types that you need to be aware of:
Boolean
Real
Integer
Text/String
Date/Time
Boolean
The Boolean data type is one which can contain one of only two values - true and false. These to values can be used to represent anything containing two states, for example:
Male/Female
Yes/No
L6th/U6th
It is used to hold data where the response can only be one of two values. It is often phrased as a question, for example:
Is the motorway open yet?
Does the property have a garden?
Are you male?
Real
This data type contains numbers which will have decimal places, for example:
45.78
123.0323
12.00
It is used to hold numbers where precision is important, for example:
measurements in a house/building (2.7 m wide)
prices of goods (£1.75)
height of people (1.82m)
The integer data type contains whole numbers with NO decimal places, for example:
45
125
1250
It is used where the accuracy may not be of vital importance or the value allocated is specifically a whole number, for example:
TV channels
Large amounts of money - house prices
coding responses - 1-4
Currency may be a real or an integer. If it is a small amount of currency then it will be real (£16.99), however if the amount is large, then it is an integer (house prices: £175 000). In general the units used may influence whether a number is represented as a real or an integer - a price in pence may be an integer (75p), but the same price in pounds is real (£0.75).
Text/String
This is any alphanumeric character. This includes numbers, text and symbols, for example:
12345
Examination
123GD56
10 Downing Street
:) ;) :p (symbols)
Date/Time
This contains numbers and letters, which, depending on the format used, displays the date or the time to different degrees of accuracy, for example:
12:45:45
1995
7th September 2007
Boolean
Real
Integer
String
Date/Time
Definition
Example
One of only two values
True
Numbers with decimals
123.32
Whole numbers
87
Alphanumeric
characters
Hello
Numbers and Letters
03/05/1988
Why is it important to allocate the correct data type to the data?
Various processes are carried out on data, including sorting, searching and mathematical processes (addition, subtraction, etc.).
Some of these processes can only be carried out on some data types. For example:
text can only be added together to form a longer string such as "hello" + "there" = "hellothere". This is called concatenation.
Boolean could not store the results of a survey with many choices.
Multiplication cannot be carried out on text.
Data has to come from somewhere - it does not just appear. If you need some data, you must consider where to get it from.
If you have been given the task of creating a leaflet for a local cinema, you will need to find some data to go into the leaflet.
Figure 1.2 Source of data
Figure 1.2 Source of data
Direct and Indirect data
Direct (primary) data is data collected from an original source. It is often easiest to think of direct data as data that has been physically collected by you.
Indirect (secondary) data has two interpretations:
Data that has been used for a purpose different to that for which it was originally collected. For example, collecting data on how many tickets have been sold for a film to make sure it is not oversold, and then using the data to find the most popular film.
The people/companies involved in collecting the data are different to those using the data. Typically this might be organisations that conduct market surveys and then sell the results to other companies who use it in advertising.
Advantages and Disadvantages
of collecting data from
different sources
Direct
Indirect
Advantages
Disadvantages
Advantages
Disadvantages
The source an collection method is known and verified.
The exact data required can be collected.
Can change the data being collected in response to answers.
May not get a large range of data.
Data may not be available - location/time
Large range of data available that could not have been collected directly.
Data can be available from different locations and time periods.
Analysis might already have been completed on some of the data.
Do not know if any bias was placed on the collection.
Cannot be certain of accuracy of the recording of data.
May not have all the information about how, when and where it was collected to make a valued opinion on its usefulness.
If the information was not originally collected, may not be able to get hold of it.
static information sources with dynamic sources
An information source is a repository of data that can be accessed when required. There are two main types of information source:
static and dynamic.
A static information source is one where the data, once created, does not change. A dynamic information is one where the data can change and be updated.
Static information sources include books and CDs. Dynamic sources include pages on the World Wide Web and CD-RW.
With static information sources, the data contained within it does not change. This means that it can be found when it is needed. For example, if a teacher had created a worksheet based on the source they would know that the student could find the information.
If the teacher
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