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Transcript of Emotion-PD
- If humans and other animals had common ancestors, there ought to be some similarities in emotional expression as well.
2. Lange and James (1922)
- A biological approach to emotions that focused heavily on the physiological responses to stimulus.
- The stimulus is followed by the biological
reaction, and then the individual cognitively processes the physiological sensation and interprets it as an emotion.
3. Sigmund Freud (1962)
- He believed that repressed childhood sexual desires were the sources of emotions (principally anxiety and guilt)
1. What exactly are emotions and psychological emotional states?
2. Where do emotions come from?
What are the physiological, psychological, and social bases of emotions?
3. What kinds of emotions and expressions of them are universal human traits, and which are specific
to social or cultural contexts?
4. How do social contexts produce emotions?
5. How do we psychologically and socially control the expression of emotions?
Peggy Thoits (1989) delineates four components of emotions:
(1) a situational stimulus
(2) physiological changes
(3) expressive gesturing of some kind
(4) a label to identify a cluster of the first three.
Terms associated with emotion (Smith-Lovin, 1995).
- It emphasize the social aspect of emotion.
- It refer to the components of human responses that separate them from analogous responses that animals would have
- It encompasses virtually any kind of subjective positive or negative evaluation of an object.
- A general psychological condition that characterizes our experience and emotional orientation for hours or even days
Display rules (Ekman, 1972)
- How we must modify our facial expressions to make them fit social situations.
Display rules may modify facial expressions:
(1) greater intensity in the expression of an emotion
(2) less intensity in the expression of an emotion
(3) complete neutralization of the emotional expression
(4) masking one emotion with a different one.
- Individuals have their own goals, accomplishments, and behaviors that stand apart from group membership.
They are more focused on groups as the sources of identity.
Cognitive Labeling Theory(Schachter, 1964).
- This theory proposes that emotional experience is the result of the following three-step sequence:
1. An event in the environment produces a physiological reaction.
2. We notice the physiological reaction and search for an appropriate explanation.
3. By examining situational cues (“What was happening when I reacted?”), we find an emotional label (disgust, grief, excitement, anxiety) for the reaction.
Social Psychology of Emotions
(1) Involve an awareness of oneself in the social context,
(2) Emerge out of interaction with at least one other actor,
(3) Were often experienced in reference to some kind of societal standard
a. Guilt - It occur when we judge that we have done something we should not have done.
b. Shame (Conterpart of Guilt)
- There is a deep sense of the self not as someone
who has just done something wrong but as
someone who is a bad person
c. Jealousy - is a negative emotional reaction we feel when something good happens to someone else
d. Embarrassment - an uncomfortable feeling
of mortification or exposure
e. Love- is a happy, positive emotion which requires an object of affection.
Classical Ideas about the Origin of Emotion
Universal Emotion and
If involuntary facial expressions are:
(1) produced by the same emotional state across individuals
(2)Identified by many observers as meaning
the same thing.
a. Paul Ekman
- There are six fundamental emotions: happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, anger, and disgust.
- Facial Action Coding System (FACS)- a methodology to classify visible facial behavior.
- Action units - each of the fundamental emotions involves movement among a particular configuration of facial muscles.
1. Just because subjects who see a certain facial expression associate it with a particular emotion does not mean that the
particular emotion is always expressed that way or even expressed on the face at all
2. His studies of emotional universality also examined a very limited set of emotions. Six emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, and surprise)
Facial Coding System
Emotion work (Emotion Management)
- It attempts to change the intensity or quality of feelings to bring them into line with the requirements of the occasion (Hochschild, 1983).
We manage emotions in two ways:
- This are rules that dictate what people with our role identities ought to feel in a given situation.
Example: If we are receiving a gift, the feeling rule is that we should feel grateful.
Emotion at Work