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Social Learning Theories

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Eric Smith

on 4 December 2013

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Transcript of Social Learning Theories

Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
Level of development attained when learners engage in social behavior.
The zone of proximal development describes the gap between a learner's potential development and their actual development.
Instructional experiences should be within the zone of proximal development for learners to adequately master the experience and work toward their full potential. (Vygotsky, 1962; 1978)

Socio-Cultural Theory
By Eric Smith

Embedded Models
Developing Learning Communities
Community of Learners Classroom
Collaborative Learning and Group Work
Discussion-based Learning (Socratic Questioning Methods)
Instruction that Supports Social Learning:
Students work together on task completion.
Students develop skills across the curriculum.
Instructors choose meaningful and challenging tasks for the students to work.
Instructors manage Socratic dialogue that promote deeper learning. (Brown & Campione, 1996)

Social Interactions
More Knowledgeable Other
Lev Vygotsky (1962) (1978)
Russian Psychologist who:
Stated that we learn through our interactions and communications with others.
Examined how our social environments influence the learning process.
Suggested that learning takes place through the interactions students have with their peers, teachers, and other experts. (Vygotsky, 1962; 1978)
Community of Learners
Learning occurs through collaboration with other children or adults in carrying out activities with purposes connected explicitly with the history and current practices of the community.
Teachers and students are conceived as active; no role has all the responsibility for knowing or directing, and no role is by definition passive.
Children and adults together are active in structuring shared endeavors, with adults responsible for guiding the overall process and children learning to participate in the management of their own learning and involvement. (IDKB, 2013)
Problem-Based Learning (PBL)
Engages the learner in a problem-solving activity.
Instruction begins with a problem to be solved rather than content to be mastered.
Students are introduced to a real-world problem and are encouraged to construct their own understanding of the situation, and eventually find a solution.
Help students develop collaborative learning skills, reasoning skills, and self-directed learning strategies. (Boss, 2003)
Professional Learning Communities (PLC)
Three “big ideas” represent the core principles of professional learning communities: (1) Ensuring that students learn, (2) A culture of collaboration, and (3) focus on results.
Instruction should be focused on the idea that learning is central to human identity.
Through social participation, individuals will be engaged in contributing to a best practices approach to learning.
The motivation of working collectively with a team that shares the same domain, community, and practice will provide a powerful learning environment with a desire to learn the desired skills necessary to succeed. (Dufour, 2004)
Impact on Instruction
Learners build personal interpretation of the world based on experiences and interactions.
Knowledge is embedded in the context in which it is used (authentic tasks in meaningful realistic settings).
Teachers can create a learning environment that maximizes the learner's ability to interact with each other through discussion, collaboration, and feedback. (Brown & Campione, 1996; Reigeluth, 1999)
Goals of Instruction
Build personal interpretations of the world based on individual experiences and interactions
Knowledge emerges in relevant contexts through interactions that are constantly changing.
Learning is an active process of constructing rather than acquiring knowledge.
Instruction is a process of supporting knowledge construction rather than communicating knowledge. (Brown & Campione, 1996; IDKB, 2013)
Argument of Theory
Vygotsky (1962) argued that culture is the primary determining factor for knowledge construction.
We learn through this cultural lens by interacting with others and following the rules, skills, and abilities shaped by our culture.
Learning is embedded in social experience and interactions.
Emphasis on role of language in cognitive development. (Brown & Campione, 1996)
Three Identifiable Themes
Comprised of three identifiable themes:
1. Social Interaction
2. The More Knowledgeable Other
3. The "zone of proximal development"
Boss, S. (2003). Project-based learning; A short history. What Works in Education. The George Lucas Educational Foundation. Retrieved November 4, 2013, from http://www.edutopia.org/project-based-learning-history.

Brown, A. L. & Campione, J. C. (1996). Psychological theory and the design of innovative learning environments: on procedures, principles, and systems. In L. Schauble & R. Glaser (Eds.), Innovations in learning: New environments for education (pp. 289-325). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

DuFour, R. (2004). What is a professional learning community. Educational Leadership, 61 (8), 6-11. Retrieved November 4, 2013, from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/may04/vol61/num08/What-is-a-Professional-Learning-Community.aspx

Instructional Design Knowledge Base. Retrieved November 1, 2013, from http://cehdclass.gmu.edu/ndabbagh/Resources/IDKB/models_theories.htm

Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). Instructional-design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Vygotsky, L.S. (1978) Mind in Society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Vygotsky, L.S. (1962). Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Original work published in 1934).
Social learning precedes development.
Learners are curious and active in own learning experiences.
Learning takes place through interaction with skillful tutor.
Learner seeks to understand through actions or language of teacher, then internalizes the information. (Vygotsky, 1978)

Refers to someone who has higher understanding or ability level than learner.
Teacher, older adult, peer, or technological device with more knowledge or experience with respect to task, process, or concept.
The MKO must have more knowledge than learner and be able to guide and facilitate learning. (Vygotsky, 1962; 1978)
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