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Cold War Timeline
Transcript of Cold War Timeline
If we falter in our leadership, we may endanger the peace of the world -- and we shall surely endanger the welfare of our own nation. " " June, 1947 Marshall Plan U.S would give aid to European countries in order for them to rebuild their economies, balance budgets and become economically independent of the U.S. June 22, 1948 Berlin Blockade Soviet Union rejects the currency form introduced into West Germany by blockading the Western Allies transportation corridors, that allowed the West to supply the West Berlin which laid in the Soviet Union’s Zone. June 25, 1948 Berlin Airlift The West retaliating to the Berlin Blockade by airlifting massive amounts of supplies into West Berlin. April, 1949 Formation of NATO An organization dedicated to the prevention of Soviet expansion, the North Atlantic Treaty of Organization. -Harry S. Truman August 6, 1945 U.S use the first atomic bomb against Japan. 1947 Jews and Arabs reject a joint Anglo-American recommendation on Palestine. August 15, 1947 End of violence in India results in partition, independence and the formation of Bangladesh and Pakistan. May 14, 1948 State of Israel is proclaimed. "All of the land of Israel is ours." -Yitzhak Shamir 1948 Palestine War Arab nation invade Israel to support the resistance of Palestinians but Israel wins. 1948 Iran becomes independent. May 5, 1949 The Council of Europe Their goal was to promote unity amongst nations with a common heritage. September 22, 1949 Truman discovers that the Soviets have an atomic bomb. October, 1949 Communist regime established in China. February, 1950 The U.S.S.R and China sign a treaty of friendship. May 9, 1950 The French Foreign Minister’s plan to manage the steel and coal production of France and Germany as one unit. The Schuman Plan June, 1950 The Korean War begins. October 7, 1950 U.S troops cross the 30th parallel into Korea October 26, 1950 Chinese troops cross the Yalu and within 2 weeks, pushed the U.S back across the parallel. January-February, 1951 MacArthur pushes the Chinese back to the 38th. "I will defend Korea as I would my own country—just as I would California." - General Arthur MacArthur 1952 The People’s Republic of Poland was officially proclaimed, Poland becomes a Communist state. July 23, 1953 Chinese agree to POW terms and military armistice signed, Korean War is over. 1953 Hungary Nagy put in power and was forced to make anti-Soviet demands, announced he is pulling out of the Soviet Bloc. 1954 Geneva Agreement of 1954 Laos and Cambodia are granted independence and Vietnam divided. March, 1954 A major French garrison surrenders at Dien Bien Phu. July, 1954 Vietnam is split at 17th parallel, into North and South Vietnam. May 14, 1955 Warsaw Pact Military alliance sponsored by the U.S.S.R. and included all the European satellite states, in direct response to NATO. 1955 Khruschev begins de-Stalinization. July 18, 1955 Geneva Conference The leaders of the U.K, U.S.S.R, U.S.A and France met up to discuss security, armaments, German unification and closer contacts between the East and the West. 1955 Austrian Peace Treaty The four major powers signed a treaty making Austria an independent state. 1956 Krushchev announces that the U.S.S.R was ready to peacefully compete with the U.S.A on a global basis. January 5, 1956 Eisenhower Doctrine The US policy to use troop if necessary to intervene in the Middle East to help against communist instigated aggression. "We are going to have peace even if we have to fight for it." - Dwight D. Eisenhower 1956 Poland Strives for freedom from the Soviet Bloc, Gomulka de-collectivizes Polish agriculture and lifted the restrictions on the Roman Catholic Church. October 19, 1956 The Suez War President Nasser of Egypt nationalizes the Suez Canal after the U.S pulls their support on the Ashwan Dam project. Israelis attack, supported by the U.K and France but are ordered to withdraw by the U.N. while the U.K and France are humiliated the Israelis win a major victory. November 4, 1956 Soviets retaliate to Hungarys protest by invading Budapest and installed Kadar, who rules for twenty years. August 4, 1957 U.S.S.R launches the first earth-orbiting satellite, implies that A-Bombs could soon be delivered without airplanes. March 25, 1957 Euratom Plan to reduce the dependence on Arab oil by developing atomic power alternatives. 1958 The Great Leap Forward Mao’s new economic plan. January 1, 1959 Cuban Revolution Fidel Castro overthrows the regime in Cuba and establishes himself as the leader of Cuba 1960 Summit Conference A summit between the four superpowers collapses when Krushchev refused to meet with the western leaders until the U.S apologizes over a military incident. July, 1960 The U.S stops buying Cuban sugar, the main export of Cuba, eliminating Cuba's main source of income. February, 1960 Castro signs a trade agreement with the U.S.S.R, in which they will buy all Cuban sugar and provide aid. January, 1961 The U.S breaks off all diplomatic relations with Cuba. June 4, 1961 Berlin Crisis Khrushchev announces his intentions to sign a peace agreement with East Germany. August 13, 1961 The Berlin Wall Built to keep East Germans from escaping into West Germany. August, 1962 U.S spy planes photograph surface missiles in Cuba. October 22, 1962 President Kennedy informs the world of the missiles and his intention to “quarantine” Cuba. October 24, 1962 The Soviet ships bound for Cuba and the U.S quarantine turn back. October 26, 1962 Write a series of letters that ends with Khrushchev agreeing to remove the missiles. August, 1964 Gulf Tonkin Resolution The North Vietnamese torpedo a U.S destroyer which prompts Congress to grant Johnson with absolute authority. October, 1964 Krushchev was dismissed as the Soviet leader. June 5-10, 1967 The Six Day War War between Egypt and Israel, resulting in Israel’s victory and the realization that the Arab States couldn’t win back Palestine. 1968 Prague Spring Dubcek brings about a reform movement, trying to gain some autonomy from the U.S.S.R, causes the Soviets to step in and arrest him.Dubcek brings about a reform movement, trying to gain some autonomy from the U.S.S.R, causes the Soviets to step in and arrest him. August, 1969 U.S troops begin to withdraw from Vietnam. July, 1970 The New Nixon Peace Offensive Nixon was going to remove U.S ground forces and step up the air war. 1971 The war in Vietnam was almost entirely an air war. 1972 SALT One The U.S.S.R and the U.S would limit their number of ICBM’s. January 27, 1973 Ceasefire in North Vietnam was signed. August 15, 1973 All U.S forces out of Vietnam. October, 1973 The Yom Kippur War Egypt, helped by Syria and Iraq, attack Israel. As a result OPEC raises crude oil prices by 70% which led to a serious economic crisis in the world. Spring, 1975 Civil war in Lebanon. April 30, 1975 South Vietnam falls to the Communists. August, 1975 Helsinki Accords Major countries of Europe agreed to accept the existing divisions and boundaries of Europe. September, 1975 Military coup establishes Pol Pot as an absolute dictator in Cambodia. December 2, 1975 Laos becomes the People’s Democratic Republic of Laos. March, 1979 Camp David Accords Peace treaty agreed upon by Egypt and Israel. December, 1979 The Soviets invaded Afghanistan and installed Barak Kamal as President. September, 1980 Iran-Iraq War A war of religion, superpowers interested because of the the oil reserves. 1986 Glasnost Policy of less censorship and freedom of speech. April, 1986 Chernobyl Disaster Meltdown of the Chernobyl nuclear power facility forced Gorbachev to alter from the traditional course. 1987 Syria sends troops to Lebanon to control fighting. 1987 Perestroika Gorbachev’s book in which he ignores the ethnic problem and demostrates his commitment to reform. December, 1987 Washington Khrushchev and Reagan agree to destroy all ground based intermediate nuclear forces. August 20, 1988 The Iran-Iraq war ends with the U.N brokering a deal between the two countries. April-May, 1989 Tiananmen Square Protests The army ruthlessly suppressed at the orders of the government. November 9, 1989 The Berlin Wall opened and free elections were promised. December 29, 1989 Czechoslovakia becomes a democratic state. March, 1990 Hungary allowed free elections. June, 1990 Bulgaria has its first free elections and the Iron Curtain has completely collapsed. August 2, 1990-February 28, 1991 Persian Gulf War Iraq invades Kuwait, U.N responds with a international coalition. October 30, 1990 East and West Germany are reunified. April, 1991 Warsaw Pact ends. August, 1991 End of the Soviet Union, Cold War ends. By: Stephanie Shih