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Japanese language history

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by

Saki Sawada

on 9 September 2013

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Transcript of Japanese language history

BC 4th century - AD 3th century
弥生時代


They didn't have any
letter.
aguriculture
Stamp presented by Chinese king to Japanese king in 1st century
Chinese came to Japan

Learning from China
5th century,
Japanese people have begun to go China or welcomed Chinese people in japan in order to learn Chinese literature and culture.
AD 607, Japanese wrote Chinese letter but in Japanese grammar order
Japanese Chinese
Chinese: S V O
Japanese: S O P
Write Japanese word in Chinese
よろしく =





万葉仮名
(manyou gana)
難見飽


吉野乃河

 
常滑

  
絶事無

復還見

Read Chinese character in also Japanese way!
night,
dewdrop,
four,
awkward
霧歌師霧歌師
阿流都故路爾
於時威佐無都
於伐阿佐無我
須無泥威馬師多
昔々
ある所に
お爺さんと
お婆さんが
住んでいました
=


san
yama
sen
kawa
也麻
加和


en
ka
honoo
hi
Read sentence with chinese characters in Japanese way.
Japanese biographies and poems (AD 7 century-)
平安時代
Heian era 795-1192

Hiragana and
Katakana
appeared!
women were interested in new thing!
Simplification of Chinese characters
Hiragana
katakana
efficient and easy to write
Kamakura era 1192-1333
鎌倉時代
Samurai

appeared!
「木曾の左馬頭(さわのかみ)、物いふ詞(ことば)つづきのかたくななること、かぎりなし」

=The guy who came from Nagano, which is rural area, had terrible dialect. His speaking was terrible and not understandable.
Strong dialects
Chinese came to Japan!
How Japanese people used
Chinese character?
samurai tried to
manage whole Japan
Arsitocrat made a fool out of rural people's dialect.
Samurai guys admired strong and cool expression
(reply) かへりごと→
返事
(fire) ひのこと →
火事
(rustic, rude) こちなし →
武骨
(precious) おおいにせまる→
大切

fast!
cool!
strong impact!
Muromachi era 1336-
室町時代
You can hear their way to talk in Kyogen!
kyogen is the traditional Japanese comic theater.
Samurai went to
Kyoto to learn
elegant
manner and language

from aristocrat
They needed to get permission from Japanese emperor to get power.
Elegance was key for samurai
the age of Civil Wars 1493-1590
戦国時代
However, still it was very tough to remove their strong dialect or accent.
Strong dialect
it was very important to speak elegant capital language to have power.


Edo era 1603-1868
江戸時代
Dialect developed and became stronger
Reason:
+ people were able to live without interaction with other prefecture or capital

+ Each prefecture leader managed own are
Ieyasu devided prefectures and controled people moving between area putting a barrier station.
1 million citizen were in Edo (now Tokyo)
Comics
were used in private elementary school called 'tera koya'
All Edo people spoke Edo dialect. How?
Meizi era 1868–1912
明治時代
Combination of Japanese and Western style.
Black ship!!
American forced to open Japanese port.
Japan wanted to establish strong organization against western countries.

But...
too strong dialect!
Japanese people cannot understand each other.
Revolution in education!
+ established
elementary school

+ Going to school was
obligation

+ Made the
standard language
based on elegant Yamanote dialect (Tokyo people who were more than middle class used)

Japanese literary scholar made desperately coinages.
「民主主義」 democracy

人民

the people

共和

republic
「自由」 free
「演説」 speech
「聴診器」 a stethoscope
「交響曲」 a symphony
「野球」 baseball
「卓球」 table tennis
「電話」 telephone
この前
Book
を買いに
10Minute
歩いてきたよ!
speak mixing japanese and western language!

Big problem!
Why Japan could success in modernization?
Japanese could
understand

western ideas and technologies

in Japanese
by translating.
Those Japlish (English word coined in Japan) were imported in China.

中華
人民
共和
国 Chinese country name use Japalish.

Japanese have continued to create coinage such as



」=
seeking

marriage
partner

草食
男子」=
herbivorous
boys

western style cloths? carriage?
House seems western too.
言文一致運動 genbunicchi movement
In interaction between western culture, Japanese notice that western people were speaking in same way in written language.

「我レ筆ヲ持チタリ」
watachi ha hude wo motte imasu
ware hude wo mochi tari
Improvement of education structure
200→48
Taishou era 1912-1926
大正時代
Spoken Japanese language was classiacal Chinese way.

Radio people considered to speak more
familiar and soft way
for listener.
History
of
Japanese language

BC 4th century
the 8th century
the 14th century
the 20th century
the 19th century
the 17th century
Introduction
日本語
★at least
130,000,000

people use Japanese

4th
most used language in Internet
★current Japanese formed only around
100 years ago 
漢字
ひらがな
カタカナ
「君待跡 吾戀居者 我屋戸乃 簾令動 秋之風吹」

「君待つと わが恋ひをれば わが屋戸の 
すだれ動かし 秋の風吹く」

「あなたの訪れを待って、恋しく想っておりますと、私の家の簾を動かして秋の風が訪れてまいります。」

Full transcript