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Transcript of Thesis defense
Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato) in Alloxan induced
hyperglycemic mice Background of the Study Statement of the problem Purpose of the study Hypotheses
A Thesis Proposal Submitted to
The Faculty of College of Pharmacy
Manila Central University
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement of
Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder of the endocrine system.
The disease occurs worldwide and its incidence is increasing rapidly in most parts of
the world. People suffering from the diabetes are not able to produce or properly us insulin
in the body, so they have a high level of blood glucose.
Diabetes is becoming the third killer of mankind. (Li et al., 2004)
Diabetes is a multisystem affliction, having impact on nearly everybody’s organ.
As a disease, it kills more individuals on a per annum basis than AIDS and breast cancer
when combined (Shapiro K., Gong C., 2002).
The impact on the quality of life of an individual suffering with diabetes is profound.
A number of natural products currently exist that demonstrate hypoglycemic activity;
indeed, depending upon the source that one might use, there are approximately
800 to 1200 plants exhibit hypoglycemic activity.
While research and development efforts in this particular area thus, far are
largely restricted to traditional medicine uses, future research may well
identify a potent anti-diabetic age.
1. What is the percentage of flavonoid present in the fruit of Solanum lycopersicum?
2. What are the physical, chemical and instrumental properties of the flavonoid extract?
3. What dose is lethal to the half of the population of mice?
4. What dose shows effectiveness on lowering the blood glucose levels in the test animals?
5. Is there a significant difference in blood glucose lowering property of the flavonoid extract with that of the glibenclamide? Submitted by:
Brigitte Anne Domingo
Lady Rose Barbosa
MARCH 2012 The acquired information and result of this study will be a great benefit to the following:
To all people and economic standings, who can’t afford to buy medicines that, have a higher price, those drugs considerably effective but an inexpensive alternative drug is the best way to help them reach their medication regimen.
To the manufacturer of the drugs, who are searching for innovative drugs for the less fortunate people that can’t comply with their therapy because of lack of budget. If this study will be proven, it can be made into dosage form in which can be an alternative to high price oral hypoglycemic agents.
To the pharmacists, this study could be a big help for them in the formulation of new drugs that can benefit our society.
To the students, this study can broaden their knowledge about the benefits of Kamatis and can lead them to conduct research in which can improve the findings of this research.
Ho: The flavonoid constituent present in Solanum lycopersicum does not possess hypoglycemic activity
Ha: The flavonoid constituent present in Solanum lycopersicum possesses hypoglycemic activity This study aims to determine the
effectivity of flavonoid
extract from Solanum lycopersicum
in lowering blood glucose level This study aims to determine the
effectivity of flavonoid
extract from Solanum lycopersicum
in lowering blood glucose level Collection & Preparation Extraction of flavonoid constituent Pytochemical Screening Characterization of the extract Physical property Organoleptic
Properties Chemical property Pytochemical
Screening Instrumental property IR spectroscopy Toxicological property Lethal dose 50 Pharmacological
Property IN Vivo testing
conducted Significance of the study Summary of the findings 1.The extract of the Solanum lycopersicum fruit contains an abundant amount of flavonoids. Based on the two basis of extraction, the lyophilizer yielded 3.4% flavonoid extract.
2.The Solanum lycopersicum flavonoid extract exhibited similar physical characteristics consistent with the flavonoids. The extract was acidic when tested in pH meter. It is soluble in polar solvents like water and alcohol as well as to non-polar solvents like petroleum ether. Chemical tests revealed and confirmed the presence of the flavonoid constituent with hypoglycemic property. The structural characteristics of the flavonoid extract were similar to the flavonoid Quercetin, confirmed by the IR spectroscopy (Perkin Elmer 2 instrument)
3.Toxicological tests done on Solanum lycopersicum flavonoid extract showed no deaths among the test animals which was given with doses ranging from 10 to 1000mg/kg BW. This shows that the flavonoid extract is safe as adjunct to foodstuff and pharmaceuticals. The fresh fruit also is safe and has a high antioxidant property.
4.The Solanum lycopersicum flavonoid extract possesses hypoglycemic activity in different concentration dependent manner as well as with its time intervals. It also possesses hypoglycemic activity in a dose dependent manner. Based on the percentage decline, 300mg/kg and 600mg/kg of the extract shows remarkable effect in lowering blood glucose level of hyperglycemic mice compared with the standard drug.
5. There is a significant difference in the blood glucose level of mice at different doses of the extract as shown using t-statistics; the duration of action of hypoglycemic activity of the extract is dependent on the concentration of the extract. Conclusions Based on the findings of the study, the flavonoid extract present from the fruit of Solanum lycopersicum contained a considerable amount of 3.4%. It possesses physico-chemical and structural characteristics similar to quercetin. The extract did not cause any toxic effects in the animal group so it is safe to use up to 1000mg/kg of the dose. The hypoglycemic activity of the flavonoid extract is not statistically different from the reference drug (Glibenclamide), and therefore is comparable in its hypoglycemic activity. Different doses of the test drug lowered the blood glucose level of hyperglycemic mice but 300mg/kg and 600 mg/kg of the extract shows a remarkable effect. Thus, the flavonoid extract of Solanum lycopersicum has a hypoglycemic property, and may be considered as an alternative agent in lowering blood glucose level. Recommendations 1.Use other reference drug for comparing the hypoglycemic activity of tomato.
2.Consider other extraction method in obtaining flavonoid extract.
3.Study the constituents present in tomato and determine other pharmacological properties present in the sample.
4.Formulation of a tomato dosage form which is cheap and readily available.
5. Look for a statistical tool that will determine more vividly the effectiveness of the suspected therapeutic value of extract obtained. Thank you for listening! :P
Think positive <3 The fresh fruit of Solanum lycopersicum as known commercially
as Tomato was bought from the market of Caloocan City.
The fruits were washed thoroughly with tap running water to
remove dirt and debris. Aerial parts were removed, and were cut to smaller pieces.
Fifty grams of the sample was used for the test. Flavonoid extract...... In test for Flavonoids, the result shows the presence of flavonoids which is probably a leucoanthocyanin because it gave a positive result to Batesmith and Metcalf test which is a specific test.
In test for Tannins, The result showed that Solanum lycopersicum flavonoid extract contains polyphenolic compounds which are not tannin since it yields a negative result in gelatin salt test which is the specific test for tannins.
SHOWS NEGATIVE RESULT ON THE OTHER SUCCEEDING TESTS Tomato bought was washed with tap running water. The aerial parts such as stems, leaves and seeds were removed. The fruit was cut into smaller pieces.
Fifty grams of the sample was placed in a percolator, It was undergone a Percolation process. 95% Ethyl alcohol was used as a extraction solvent.
The process continued for three days. After the due, it was partition with petroleum ether and sent to the Pharmacy Laboratory of Adamson University
for Rotatory Evaporation to remove the solvent and freeze drying for solidification.
Odor: Sweet odor resembling burnt caramel
Texture: Very viscous
PH: 5.5 Shows (+) Results on the test for flavonoids including
Batesmith and Metacalf test
Wilstaters Cyanidin test 3312.82 --- OH in ROH --- Strong
2951.04 --- C-H --- Medium
1113.37 --- C=O --- Medium
1648.18 --- C-O --- Medium
1408.56 --- C-O-H --- Medium Flavonoid frequency -- Functional group -- Interpretation Lethal dose 50 is an important parameter for testing the safety of natural products that was seen to have a pharmacological property. The safety of Solanum lycopersicum flavonoid extract was determined by probit method. Doses were administered in increments of log dose 0.6 corresponding to 10, 40, 160, 630, and 1000mg/kg.
The extract did not cause death to the test animals, therefore safe to use up to 1000mg/kg. The normal and hyperglycemic mice were divided into 6 groups and has a corresponding doses of 300mg/kg, 400mg/kg, 500 mg/kg & 600mg/kg of extract, one for the negative control and one for the positive control
The test drug shows a remarkable decrease in BGL of hyperglycemic mice, however, 300mg/kg and 600 mg/kg of the extract shows remarkable effect comparable to the standard drug.