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rebecca sames

on 11 November 2014

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Transcript of file:///C:/Users/home/Downloads/society_of_radiographers_-_-

There are a few key pieces of legislation related to radiation protection, which relate to the Health and Safety at work Act (1974).
Each ofthese is written by the HMSO (Her Majesty's Stationer's Office),and form the Legal requirements for radiation protection.
These are:

IR(ME)R 2000 and IR(ME)
Amendment Regulations 2006
& 2011
Responsible person: Maria Murray
Published: Sunday, July 1, 2012
ISBN: 9781-871101-87-5
Radiation protection principles and UK legislation is the
responsibility of all professionals working with radiation
Radiation Protection Supervisors (RPS) should, as good practice, be involved in IR(ME)R matters
within their local department even though it is not their statutory responsibility.

Radiation regulations set out the legal capacity in which practices should be undertaken and
frameworks under which individuals are required to act or carry out tasks
All healthcare
professionals have a legal responsibility to act in the manner that is set out in local written
procedures relating to the various regulations.
However, it is imperative that they must also be
aware of their professional responsibility in knowing whether that way of proceeding is an
appropriate method to carry out the delivery of safe effective practice.
The Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000
2000) is legislation aimed at
the protection of the patient
against the hazards associated with ionising radiation.
It is made as
criminal law
rather than civil law. The main difference is that civil law seeks to establish fault and
award compensation whereas
criminal law relates to an illegal act which is punishable
compensation is a secondary issue
Legally, a signature means that the person takes responsibility
for the IR(ME)R specific parts of work and it would be inappropriate for anyone to sign for something
outside their control, for which they have not been trained or entitled and for that which they do not
have the tools to complete.
All radiographers and APs are advised to ensure that they have adequate
professional indemnity insurance to cover their IR(ME)R role(s) within their workplace
– SCoR offers
this cover as part of individual membership and subscription.
The Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000, (IR(ME)R 2000) - came into force on
13th May 2000
Procedures to ensure the probability and magnitude of Accidental or unintended
doses are reduced so far as possible.
Regulation 4(5) requires the Employer to carry out investigations of incidents and appropriate
reviews. All departments should have procedures in place to deal with this locally (e.g.
dose checks
reporting or errors procedures).

As part of induction of new staff:

Local rules
Machine QA
QA procedures
Standard operating procedures
etc ...
Role of the Medical Physics Expert (MPE)
. . .involved as appropriate for consultation on optimisation, including patient dosimetry and
quality assurance
, and to give advice on matters relating to radiation protection concerning
medical exposure, as required, in all other radiological practice.
Employer required to keep and
have ready for inspection an
updated inventory of
all equipment which includes
information about:
-Name of manufacturer
-Model number
-Serial number
-Year of manufacture
-Year of installation
This could then be
alongside QA
in an inspection.
If a dosage error is due to equipment malfunction it is reportable to the HSE.

Group activity on Legal regulations.

Ionising Radiation Regulations
(IRR; 1999)
Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposures) Regulations
IR(ME)R (2000)
Relates to MEDICAL imaging and use of ALARP principles for patient safety.
Regulations for establishing and maintaining a safe working environment in relation to radiation.
In HMSO (1999)
In HMSO (2000)
IR(ME)R Amendments document (2006)
Contains regulations for use of updated technology
In HMSO (2006)
Radioactive substances act (RSA; 1993)
Use, storage and disposal
of radioactive materials.
In HMSO (1993)
Radioactive Substances (Hospitals) Exemption (Amendment) Order (1995)
Legislation concerned with exemption of hositals from RSA (1993) regulations for the storage and use of radioactive materials in hospitals.
In HMSO (1995)
Applicable to use of tracers, radioactive isotopes, etc . . .
For QA, are devices giving the doses accurately?
HMSO (1999); In the UK there is a legal requirement for manufacturers to design dose-reducing features in all new imaging equipment.
IRR (1999)
and how it applies
to QA

Maintenance and examination of engineering
controls etc. and personal protective equipment


(1) A radiation employer who provides
any engineering control, design feature, safety
feature or warning device to meet the
requirements of regulation 8(2)(a) shall ensure—

(a) that any such control, feature or device is
properly maintained; and

(b) where appropriate, that thorough
examinations and tests of such controls, features or
devices are carried out at suitable intervals.
Monitoring of designated areas

19.—(1) Every employer who designates an area as a controlled or supervised area shall take
such steps as are necessary (otherwise than by use of assessed doses of individuals), having
regard to the nature and extent of the risks resulting from exposure to ionising radiation, to
ensure that levels of ionising radiation are adequately monitored for each such area and that
working conditions in those areas are kept under review.

(2) The employer upon whom a duty is imposed by paragraph (1) shall provide suitable and
sufficient equipment for carrying out the monitoring required by that paragraph, which
equipment shall—

(a) be properly maintained so that it remains fit for the purpose for which it was
intended; and
(b) be adequately tested and examined at appropriate intervals

3) Equipment provided pursuant to paragraph (2) shall not be or remain suitable unless—
(a) the performance of the equipment has been established by adequate tests before it has
first been used; and
(b) the tests and examinations carried out pursuant to paragraph (2) and sub-paragraph
(a) above have been carried out by or under the supervision of a qualified person.

(4) The employer upon whom a duty is imposed by paragraph (1) shall—

(a) make suitable records of the results of the monitoring carried out in accordance with
paragraph (1) and of the tests carried out in accordance with paragraphs (2) and (3);
(b) ensure that the records of the tests carried out pursuant to sub-paragraph (a) above
are authorised by a qualified person; and
(c) keep the records referred to in sub-paragraph (a) above, or copies thereof, for at least
2 years from the respective dates on which they were made.
Duties of manufacturers etc. of articles for use in work with ionising radiation

31.—(1) In the case of articles for use at work, where that work is work with ionising
radiation, section 6(1) of the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974(b) (which imposes
general duties on manufacturers etc. as regards articles and substances for use at work) shall
be modified so that any duty imposed on any person by that subsection shall include a duty to ensure that any such article is so designed and constructed as to restrict so far as is reasonably practicable the extent to which employees and other persons are or are likely to be exposed to ionising radiation.

(2) Where a person erects or installs an article for use at work, being work with ionising radiation, he shall—

(a) where appropriate, undertake a critical examination of the way in which the article
was erected or installed for the purpose of ensuring, in particular, that—
(i) the safety features and warning devices operate correctly; and
(ii) there is sufficient protection for persons from exposure to ionising radiation;
(b) consult with the radiation protection adviser appointed by himself or by the radiation
employer with regard to the nature and extent of any critical examination and the
results of that examination; and
(c) provide the radiation employer with adequate information about proper use, testing
and maintenance of the article.
Equipment used for medical exposure

32.—(1) Every employer who has to any extent control of any equipment or apparatus
which is used in connection with a medical exposure shall, having regard to the extent of his
control over the equipment, ensure that such equipment is of such design or construction and
is so installed and maintained as to be capable of restricting so far as is reasonably practicable
the exposure to ionising radiation of any person who is undergoing a medical exposure to the
extent that this is compatible with the intended clinical purpose or research objective.

(2) An employer who has to any extent control of any radiation equipment which is used for
the purpose of diagnosis and which is installed after the date of the coming into force of these
Regulations shall, having regard to the extent of his control over the equipment, ensure that
such equipment is provided, where practicable, with suitable means for informing the user of
that equipment of the quantity of radiation produced by that equipment during a radiological

(3) Every employer in respect of whom a duty is imposed by paragraph (1) shall, to the extent
that it is reasonable for him to do so having regard to the extent of his control over the
equipment, make arrangements for a suitable quality assurance programme to be provided in
respect of the equipment or apparatus for the purpose of ensuring that it remains capable of
restricting so far as is reasonably practicable exposure to the extent that this is compatible with
the intended clinical purpose or research objective.

(4) Without prejudice to the generality of paragraph (3), the quality assurance programme
required by that paragraph shall require the carrying out of—
(a) in respect of equipment or apparatus first used after the coming into force of this
regulation, adequate testing of that equipment or apparatus before it is first used for
clinical purposes;
(b) adequate testing of the performance of the equipment or apparatus at appropriate
intervals and after any major maintenance procedure to that equipment or apparatus;
(c) where appropriate, such measurements at suitable intervals as are necessary to enable
the assessment of representative doses from any radiation equipment to persons
undergoing medical exposures.

(5) Every employer who has to any extent control of any radiation equipment shall take all
such steps as are reasonably practicable to prevent the failure of any such equipment where such
failure could result in an exposure to ionising radiation greater than that intended and to limit
the consequences of any such failure.

(6) Where a radiation employer suspects or has been informed that an incident may have
occurred in which a person while undergoing a medical exposure was, as the result of a
malfunction of, or defect in, radiation equipment under the control of that employer, exposed
to ionising radiation to an extent much greater than that intended, he shall make an immediate
investigation of the suspected incident and, unless that investigation shows beyond reasonable
doubt that no such incident has occurred, shall forthwith notify the Executive thereof and make
or arrange for a detailed investigation of the circumstances of the exposure and an assessment
of the dose received.

(7) A radiation employer who makes any investigation in accordance with paragraph (6)
shall make a report of that investigation and shall—
(a) in respect of an immediate report, keep that report or a copy thereof for a period of
at least 2 years from the date on which it was made; and
(b) in respect of a detailed report, keep that report or a copy thereof for a period of at
least 50 years from the date on which it was made.

(8) In this regulation, “radiation equipment” means equipment which delivers ionising
radiation to the person undergoing a medical exposure and equipment which directly controls
the extent of the exposure.
IR(ME)R and 2006

Ionising Radiation (Medical
Exposures) Regulations


Problems, testing and tools
The margin on the left hand side, is where the image has gone too far, and the thumb is cut off the image on the right - the image is 'shifted' left of where it should be. The operator seems to have tried to get wrist, distal forearm and distal hand, but the collimation was not where the light showed.
Collimator test tool:
Image has moved from centre - no acrylic tube is shown though, or ball bearing.
Quality Assurance

The different tests
Tube output tests
Light Beam Checks
Image Quality Checks
Full transcript