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Carl Rogers

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miko red

on 27 July 2014

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Transcript of Carl Rogers

The Velveteen Rabbit
Carl Rogers
About Carl
"The organism has one basic tendency and striving - to actualize, maintain, and enhance the experiencing organism” (Rogers, 1951, p. 487).
Existential-Humanistic Paradigm
Carl Rogers
The Self
- Throughout his career he dedicated himself to
humanistic psychology

and is well-known for his theory
personality development.
- He began developing
his humanistic concept
while working with
abused children.
- He argued that therapists
should allow patients
discover the solution for themselves.
- He sees
mental health

as the
normal progression
of life
, and he sees
mental illness
other human problems
of that
natural tendency.
Self-actualization occurs when a person’s “ideal self” (i.e. who they would like to be) is congruent with their actual behavior (self-image).
Rogers describes an individual who is actualizing as a fully functioning person.
The main determinant of whether we will become self-actualized is childhood experience.
"Growth Potential" aims to integrate congruently the "real self" and the "ideal self" thereby cultivating the emergence of the "fully functioning person."
Ideal self
Real self
Ideal self
Real self
The self is the central construct in this theory
Based largely on life experiences, social evaluation and the attitude of the individual's significant other.
Guidelines as to how people behave towards others because people value their opinion of themselves above their own.
What we think about ourselves.
Rogers believed feelings
of self-worth developed in early childhood
and were formed from the interaction
of the child with the mother and father.
May be seen as a continuum from
very high to very low.
A person who has high self-worth:
A person who has low self-worth:
Positive Regard
The key in the development
of self-concept.
Rogers' umbrella term for things like
love, affection, attention, nurturance,
and so on.
Rogers believed that we need
to be regarded positively by others
Positive regard is to do with how
other people evaluate and judge
us in social interaction.
People (since birth) → Needs
(to be loved and accepted by
other people)
"To feel that one is understood is to feel that
one has made some kind of a positive
difference in the experience of another"
(Rogers, 2004 p 343)
Unconditional Positive Regard
Where parents, significant others (and the humanist therapist) accepts and loves the person for what he or she is.
Is not withdrawn if the person does something wrong or makes a mistake.
The person feels free to try things out and make mistakes, even though this may lead to getting it worse at times.
Positive regard from parents and others is given freely without conditions or contingencies
Plays an essential role in becoming a fully functioning person
Conditional Positive Regard
Where positive regard, praise and approval, depend upon the child
Conditions of worth.
Getting positive regard on “on condition”
Positive regard has to be earned by meeting particular conditions
The mental picture
Depicts not only details that
are potentially available to
objective investigation by others
but also items that have been
learned either from personal
experiences or by internalizing
the judgments of others.
"What do you believe people
think about you?"
The traits people use to
define themselves.
Self-image is how you perceive
Three types of self-image
how the individual sees himself or herself.

how others see the individual.

how the individual perceives others see him or her.

This is the person who we would like to be.
Consists of our goals and ambitions in life, and is dynamic
your life experiences,
the demands of society,
what you admire in your role models
It’s the image you want everyone else to see.
The mirror against which you compare your actual self.
Who we actually are.
What an individual currently is
or that individual perceives
themselves to be.
The real self can be seen by others.
The Self
Correspondence between an aspect
of the ideal self and an aspect
of the real self.
If the way that I am (the real self)
is aligned with the way that I want
to be (the ideal self) = sense of mental
well-being or peace of mind
Discrepancy between the actual
experience of the organism and the
self-picture of the individual in so far
as it represents that experience.
For a person to achieve
self-actualization they
must be in a state of congruence.
If the way that I am is not aligned
with how I want to be = mental
distress or anxiety.
Neurosis: Being out of synch with your own self
Psychosis: Occurs when a person's defense
are overwhelmed. Their sense of self
becomes "shattered" into little
disconnected pieces.
• It is used for running away
from threatening situations.
Two defenses:
- Prevention or blocking out of threatening experiences from reaching conscious awareness
Perceptual Distortion
- A matter of reinterpreting the situation so that it appears less threatening.
Fully-functioning Person
People who are able be self-actualize.
Ideal and one that people do not ultimately achieve.
Fully Functioning Person >>>>> The GOOD LIFE
Allow personality and self-concept to emanate from experience
One who is in touch with his or her deepest and innermost feelings and desires.
An individual who is continually working toward becoming self-actualized.
Completely congruent and integrated.
Able to embrace 'existential living.'
A person who experiences in the present, with immediacy.
Has a flexible, constantly evolving self-concept.
of a
Fully-functioning person:
Open to experience
Existential living
Trust feelings
Fulfilled life
The Self
Raised in Love but Imprisoned by Beliefs
His parents were devout protestants and imposed very rigid rules on their children, such as no dancing, cards, movies, smoking, or drinking.
It is important to note that Rogers did not take objection to his parents' belief that drinking was wrong (the right or wrong of it was irrelevant) - the problem came in the fact that they assumed their son would automatically believe the same.
Rogers' belief that his world view was being imposed upon him was a great impetus for his later theory of personality development.

Mandela was sentenced to life in prison. But even in his cell, Mandela retained his dignity and his sense of humor. Mandela was elected president. He was inaugurated on May 10, 1994. Mandela then outlined his vision for the future of South Africa.

Nelson Mandela may serve as examples of people who each personify a reality self-actualization. He maintained an attitude of meaning in life even while he was imprisoned. His safety needs may have been threatened in these particular life circumstances, but it may be understood that many people whose safety needs are compromised may be cognizant of being values. He may find life to be meaningful explicitly because of situations of danger to his life.


While she was a student, Sylvia Plath spent time in New York City during the summer of 1953 working for Mademoiselle magazine as a guest editor. Soon after, Plath tried to kill herself by taking sleeping pills. She eventually recovered, having received treatment during a stay in a mental health facility.

Her interest in writing emerged at an early age, and she started out by keeping a journal. After publishing a number of works, Plath won a scholarship to Smith College in 1950. She was a Fulbright Fellowship, and while studying at the university's Newnham College, she met the poet Ted Hughes.

After Hughes left her for another woman in 1962, Sylvia Plath fell into a deep depression. Struggling with her mental illness, she wrote The Bell Jar (1963), her only novel, which was based on her life and deals with one young woman's mental breakdown. Sylvia Plath committed suicide on February 11, 1963.

Rogers believed that when a child comes into this world, the concept of ‘self’ is present in him just like a tiny dot and it grows and develops as the age of child increases.

Rogers described the self as a social product, developing out of interpersonal relationships and striving for consistency

McLeod, S. A. (2007). Carl Rogers. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/carl-rogers.html
http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/rogers.html Rogers, C. 1961. On Becoming a Person. Houghton Mifflin Company, pg 16, 17, 34.
http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/Rogers.html Copyright 1998, 2006 by C. George Boeree
cgjj.wikispaces.com/Theory (Carl Rogers's Theory of Personality)
The Velveteen Rabbit has come to visit us!

Will you all play with him?

He's going to be passed around while the music is playing (Be very careful with passing him to the person next to you!). Once you hear that the music has stopped, the lucky person who is currently holding him will answer his question!
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