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Transcript of Taiga
The tropical rainforest is the most abundant and diverse when it comes to organisms out of all of the major land biomes. The tropical rainforest, while only covering less than 6% of the Earth's surface, has more species of trees and more medicinal plants. This biome also receives the highest amount of rain fall. The layers of the rain forest include the emergent layer, the upper canopy, the understory, and the forest floor. Among these layers live organisms such as the tualang tree, the Bengal bamboo plant, the African forest elephant, the Bengal tiger, and the king cobra. Food Web The 10% Rule Key Primary Producer Primary Consumer Secondary Consumer Tertiary Consumer Scavenger Decomposer Honey Fungus Grizzly Bear Armillariella mellea Ursus Arctos Horribilus Balsam Fir Abies balsamea Moose Alces alces The 10% rule describes how energy is transferred through a food chain in an ecosystem. The main energy source in every ecosystem is the sun, which holds an on going energy supply. Primary producers, like the pine trees in the Taiga create their energy from the sun's rays. What the 10% rule states is that if the pine tree holds 1000 J of energy then its consumer, the moose, will only receive 10% of its energy. This means that the moose contains 100 J of energy and when the moose gets eaten by a bear, that consumer will then have 10 J of energy. In this transfer, the other 90% of energy is used up inside the organism for things like body heat. The taiga's climate is usually described as cold. The taiga experiences 7 months of extremely cold winter because of how close it is to the arctic tundra. However, the taiga does experience warm weather in its summer months, which only last for a short period of time. The taiga also shows signs of the other two seasons of the year, including spring, which is when flowers begin to bloom and animals come out from hibernation. http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-yTxTlKO3USg/TaExx6uRoWI/AAAAAAAAABk/5OHsFdDsu9Q/s1600/5930yu-std.png Seasons The taiga's yearly temperatures range from -65 degrees F to 70 degrees F and its annual precipitation (including snow and rainfall) ranges from 20cm to 200cm. Climate Eastern Red Cedar Juniperus virginiana http://canadianbiodiversity.mcgill.ca/english/ecozones/taigaplains/taigaplains.htm Cricket Gryllus assimilis Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush Quaternary Consumer River Otter Lutra canadensis Snowshoe Rabbit Lepus americanus Gray Wolf Canis lupus Willow
Ptarmigan Lagopus lagopus Cloudberry Rubus chamaemorus Blue-Joint
Grass Calamagrostis canaensis http://www.borealforest.org/ Giant Sequoia Sequoiadendron giganteum Gray Wolf Canis lupus Snowshoe Rabbit Moose Eastern Red Cedar Cloudberry Blue-Joint
Grass Balsam Fir Juniperus virginiana Rubus chamaemorus Calamagrostis canaensis Abies balsamea Alces alces Lepus americanus 1000 J 100 J 10 J http://astroskys.com/Gallery/albums/Birds/Willow_PtarmiganG.sized.jpg http://montaraventures.com/blog/wp-content/2011/06/crickets.jpg http://www.dundeesportsmansclub.com/dundee%20pic/lake_trout.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/82/LutraCanadensis_fullres.jpg/220px-LutraCanadensis_fullres.jpg http://images.wikia.com/mafiawars/images/d/dc/Gray-wolf.jpg http://sonic.net/~evolve/wp/human_ecology/grizzly_bear_1a.jpg http://www.studentsoftheworld.info/sites/animals/img/5838_moose2.jpg http://www.threelittleladiesrabbitry.com/snowshoe.jpg http://www.acc.umu.se/~widmark/fly/hjortron.jpg http://www.co.washburn.wi.us/images/landwatercons/grasses/blue-joint-grass.jpg http://teachnologyschool.wikispaces.com/file/view/Black_Spruce_0.jpg/128354273/Black_Spruce_0.jpg http://www.sierraforestlegacy.org/images/conservation/ProjectsAndPlans/GiantSequoias.jpg http://www.gpnc.org/images/jpegs/plants/Cedar.jpg http://www.wildaboutbritain.co.uk/gallery/files/4/8/3/honey-fungus.jpg "Located in Northeastern Minnesota, the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCA) has a ~million acres of wilderness, with over 1,000 pristine lakes and streams, and over 1500 miles of canoe routes." (http://www.bwca.cc/.) The BWCAW is a beautiful place to visit to experience the Taiga. It is located right between the deciduous forest and the Taiga. Here you can see all the forestry and river wilderness that the Taiga possesses. http://www.bwca.cc/ http://www.pc.gc.ca/pn-np/ns/cbreton/natcul/natcul1/b/iii.aspx The Cape Breton Highlands National Park of Canada is the perfect place to go for tourists wanting to venture further in to the Taiga. This park covers and protects 75% of the Taiga in its ecosystem. http://www.pc.gc.ca/~/media/pn-np/ns/cbreton/t-z/Taiga_e.ashx http://www.campingtourist.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/03/cape-breton-highlands-national-park.jpg Other National Parks that capture the beauty of the Taiga can be visited in North West Russia. These nature parks include Vodlozero National Park, Yugud-Va National Park, Kostamus Reservation, Paanajarvi National Park, and Laplandski Reservation. http://www.sll.fi/mpe/parkindex.html http://englishrussia.com/images/russian_border_patrol/2.jpg Predation http://thegreatwhitehunter.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/wolf-kill-elk.jpg?w=450&h=265 Mutualism http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_ETf7ZzNqqLE/TOFIVglOUyI/AAAAAAAAEFo/wxnn4mgcg_w/s640/November%2015,%202010%20005.jpg Commensalism http://www.visualphotos.com/photo/1x4247019/Bald_Eagle_Nesting_in_Pine_Tree_700-00164950.jpg http://cdn5.fotosearch.com/bthumb/JNB/JNB006/143100.jpg Parasitism http://www2.needham.k12.ma.us/nhs/cur/Bio96_97/P5/Taiga/Biome-Taiga.html http://riedystephantaiga7.wikispaces.com/Taiga+Symbiosis http://www.rae.ru/fs/?section=content&op=show_article&article_id=7780258 http://zooexcurs.narod.ru/pictures/araneif/Ixodes2_mod.jpg Competition An example of predation in the taiga is the predator/prey relationship between the gray wolf (canis lupus) and the caribou (rangifer tarandus.) The gray wolf main food source in the winter time is the caribou and in the relationship the gray wolf gets a meal, but unfortunately the caribou losses its life in return.
One example of mutualism in the taiga is the symbiotic relationship between lichen (bacidia incompta) and black spruce trees (picea mariana.) The lichen lives on the black spruce tree and consumes all the dead matter off of the tree, while also giving the tree nutrients. The symbiotic relationship between the bald eagle (haliaeetus leucocephalus) and the jack pine tree (pinus banksiana) represents commensalism. The eagle gets the perfect area to nest in, while the tree remains unaffected by its presence. The Asian burunduk chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus) and the tick (Ixodes Persulcatus) share the symbiotic relationship of Parasitism. The tick gets its food source from the chipmunks blood and puts him in harms way of diseases like lyme. "So where can I go to experience the taiga wilderness?" Symbiosis http://www.ri.net/schools/West_Warwick/manateeproject/Taiga/animals.htm Who lives there? One animal that is native to the North American taiga is the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilus) which is actually a sub species of the brown bear. This bear is very unique from other bears because it has a large hump on its back. This hump is a muscle that the bear uses to dig up vegetation from the ground to eat. They also use their large claws and grinding teeth to aid in consuming vegetation. Grizzly bears also can make fierce predators because of their ability to run up to 35 miles per hour, their large muscular size, and their sharp claws and large teeth. However, plants make up most of this animals diet, but they will occasionally eat small or weak mammals and even carcasses. Over all, because of their omnivorous diet choice, they can either be considered a predator or a scavenger. The giant sequoia (seguoiadendron giganteum) is a very interesting tree species to the taiga. The giant sequoia is the fastest growing tree and can reach up to 280 ft tall and a 32 ft diameter. It is a needle leaf tree like most of the trees native to the taiga. Who lives there? The balsam fir tree (Abies balsamea) is a very common tree in the taiga. It can be found in both the North American and the Eurasian taiga. It is a late successional evergreen tree that can grow to be 40 to 80 ft tall and can grow to be 200 years old. It is a major winter food source to moose and not many other animals. An animal native to the Eurasian Taiga includes the Amur or the Siberian tiger. This magnificent animal is the largest of its family. The Siberian tiger if the biggest carnivorous predator in the Eurasian Taiga. They are known for eating large mammals such as antelope, buffalo, and deer. Unfortunately, despite their extreme hunting abilities, the Amur does have one predator that presents a huge problem to their population. Poachers in the taiga have brought the Siberian tiger population down to only 400 tigers left in the world. http://sport-wallpaper.com/wallpaper/siberian-tiger.jpg http://www.baltocfb.sailorsite.net/NotableTrees/BalsamFir.jpg http://www.grizzlybay.org/LearnMore/HairColor/colordifferent.jpg http://www.imgbase.info/images/safe-wallpapers/photography/animals/15672_animals_bear_grizzly_bear.jpg http://www.danheller.com/images/California/KingsCanyon/Sequoia/giant-sequoia-trees-4-big.jpg http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/97/117197-004-785AD006.jpg The taiga consists of four layers: the evergreen stratum, the shrug stratum, the herbaceous plant layer, and the low fungi layer. Almost all of the taiga’s trees are needle-leafed like pine trees because the taigas harsh cold winters make it so most trees and plant species are not able to survive in its ecosystem. The forestry of the taiga is not the only geographic characteristic that makes up its ecosystem, but it also has many rivers and streams that run through it and mountain ranges that surround it. This biome extends across a big part of both northern Eurasia and northern North America Countries and states with a taiga ecosystem include Sweden, Finland, Russia, Siberia, Canada, Alaska, Minnesota, Michigan, and some of New England. In this presentation you will learn more about its harsh climate, the plants and animals that live there, and even the relationships amongst them. http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_mBEDwYDQSeA/TG2S2pSOgxI/AAAAAAAACrQ/14ECsyn0N94/s1600/Northern+Lights.jpg http://www.cruisebrothers.com/images/Destinations/Alaska2.jpg The long-eared owl (Aiso otus) shows signs of competition in the taiga by taking over nest from other birds and becoming territorial of the tree they nest in. The Temperate grass lands hold few vegetation like trees and mainly only have grasses. It gets a moderate amount of rain fall and temperature range. Examples of specific organisms that live there are coyotes, bison, eagles, crazy weed, and buffalo grass. The tropical grassland can also be known as the savanna. In this biome the annual temperature is always hot and depending on the season dry. Some typical plants and animals include Bermuda grass, the jarrah tree, the lion, and the African elephant.