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Origins & Consequences of Domestication
Transcript of Origins & Consequences of Domestication
Why Did Domestication Occur?
The Oasis Theory
Gordon Childe's theory for domestication
Major climate change transformed the environment
Enabled humans to maintain a reliable food supply in extreme conditions
Failed to confirm due to lack of data (no evidence of dramatic changes & clustering of population)
The Origins of Domestication in the Americas
Consequences of Domestication
No one can pinpoint the precise reason for the domestication of plants and animals
But these activities clearly had some consequences that followed.
1) What is vegiculture?
2) What are some Consequences of Domestication?
Domestication in Different Regions of the World
The origins and diffusion of domestication are complex
Domestication occurred earlier in some areas than in others
Domestication process was more intricate, gradual and varied than the "revolution" envisioned by early theorists
The Readiness Hypothesis
Robert Braidwood theory
Baridwood hypothesized that domestication did not occur earlier because human populations became familiar with the plants and animals around them
But this theory did not answer how & why domestication originated
Farming communities emerged more than 11,000 years ago
After several thousand years, a distinct pattern of village life appeared (based on wheat, barley, peas, beans, sheep, goats, pigs and cattles)
Earliest settlement was Jericho
Early plant & species represented
Developments of Megaliths (large stone structures)
Showed traces of large houses, fragments of pottery, evidence of trade contacts and distinctive burial complexes
Indicated a growing social complexity in Neolithic Europe
Agricultural practices unrelated to those in Southwest Asia emerged
Vegiculture: dividing and replanting living plants
Rice cultivation was about 9,000 years ago
Agriculture spread from the Asian mainland into Korea through Japan and into the islands of Southeast Asia
Extends from Northern boundary of Mexico to the southern borders of Costa Rica
Tracked changes in subsistence strategies by examining artifacts (stone-grinding stones slabs and hand-grinding stones)
Patterns of intensive agriculture eventually spread to North America.
Adapted three distinct systems: low-altitude cultivation (beans), mid-altitude system (peanuts & beans) and high-altitude system (potatoes)
The earliest evidence for plant cultivation dates back to 10,000 years ago
Llamas and guinea pigs have been domesticated about 5,500 years ago
Maize cultivation led to specialized dry-land farming practices
Practices included irrigation methods and precise planting/harvesting schedules around rainy seasons
Agricultural technologies promoted cultivation of maize, beans and squash (diffused throughout Midwest, Southeast and Northeast)
As agriculture transforms the landscape, it also increased in human population by making food supplies more stable and reliable
Agriculture yields more food per acre, which allowed a larger population support
End of Paleolithic: 30 million
1 A.D: 300 million
Health & Nutrition
Although agricultural developments promoted population growth, it did not improve the quality of life in agricultural societies
Decline in human health
The spread of infectious diseases increased
Restricted diet did not fulfill nutritional requirements (poor nutrition)
Paleolithic and Mesolithic populations experienced food stress
Increasing Material Complexity
Technological advances during Neolithic brought dramatic changes in food production
Neolithic sites were found with huge trash mounds, food remains, broken tools and other garbage
Built more durable materials using mud, brick, stone
Innovations in transportation technology occurred : wheel
Increasing Social Stratification & Political Complexity
During past 10,000 years, human societies became more and more individualized
Transitioned from equal access to power and prestige, to more stratified societies
Paleolithic culture: emphasized on hunting - and -gathering
Mesolithic & Neolithic: greater social stratification
The Eastern Fertile Crescent
Uncovered extensive evidence to a way of life based on cultivation and pastoralism
Important innovations: irrigation systems to maintain crop growth from season to season
Signs of irrigation and domesticated cattle appeared about 7,500 years ago.
Remains of domesticated cattle, barley, pottery and storage pits were identified
Domesticated cattle, goats and sheep spread southward from northern Africa about 7,000 years ago and expanded into eastern and western Africa