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Copy of HSCI 120 Mental Health & Stress (Chapter 2)

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Christy Scroggins

on 14 May 2018

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Transcript of Copy of HSCI 120 Mental Health & Stress (Chapter 2)

Chapter 2: Mental Health & Stress
Time management
Social support
A healthy lifestyle
Relaxation techniques
Deep breathing
Progressive relaxation
Mindfulness-based meditation
T’ai Chi
Stress Reduction Strategies
Life events
Sources of Stress
Recent additional personality types
Type C personality types:
Introverted, detail-oriented, reserved people
Type D personality types:
Not very expressive, and hold in negative emotions
Personality Factors
Immune system
Health Effects of Stress
Hans Selye developed the General Adaptation Syndrome as an explanation of the physiological changes observed during a stress response
The General Adaptation Syndrome
Your body can deal with short-term acute stress, as long as you recover afterwards
Acute Stress &
Chronic Stress
The Stress Response: Changes in the Body
A stress response (or fight or flight response) is a series of physiological changes that occur in the body
The Stress Response
the general state of the body, mind, and emotions when an environmental stressor has triggered the stress response
The Stress Response
Behaviors include cutting, burning, scratching, branding, picking, hair-pulling, and head-banging
How to help:
Mental Disorders & Suicide
As many as 90% of those who commit suicide are suffering from a mental disorder—often depression
Mental Disorders & Suicide
Schizophrenia has a strong genetic component
Schizophrenia & Other Psychotic Disorders

Even without physiological dependence, psychological dependence can occur
Known as depressive or affective disorders
Mood Disorders
Deciding when a psychological problem becomes a mental disorder is not easy and is meant to be applied by people with professional training
How Do Everyday Problems Differ from Mental Disorders?
The brain & nervous system mediate all behavior, both normal & abnormal
Mental Disorders and
the Brain
The Teenage Brain
By the age of 6, 95% of the brain is formed
The Developing Brain
The brain is the central control station for human intelligence, feeling, and creativity
Advances in Knowledge and Understanding of the Brain
Facing Death
Grieving is a natural response to loss and is often expressed by a multitude of feelings, including sadness, loneliness, anger, and guilt
Bereavement & Healthy Grieving
Recognize, name, and understand their emotions
Psychologist Daniel Goleman expanded concept of intelligence by including the idea of emotional intelligence...
Emotional Intelligence
Happiness & Positive Psychology
tendency to see problems as temporary and specific rather than permanent and general
Optimism, Self-Efficacy, and Resilience
State of well-being that comes from finding purpose & meaning in life
The Self-Actualization:
Focus on positive emotions, characteristics, strengths, and conditions that create happiness
Six virtues that “enable human thriving”
Positive Psychology & Character Strengths

Experiment with techniques
Choosing an Approach to Stress Management
Cognitive factors:
your outlook and beliefs about life affect how you deal with stressors in your life
Protective Characteristics
Factors that affect these responses could be past experiences & overall level of wellness
Mediators of the Stress Response
A stress response continuing without a relaxation response is called chronic stress, which increases the likelihood of illness or disease
The Relaxation Response
More than 250 different models of psychotherapy
Based on the development of positive interpersonal relationship between a client and a therapist
Psychotherapy & Medications
Comments about death and threats of suicide
Mental Disorders & Suicide
Mental Disorders & Suicide
What We’re Addicted To: Substances & Behaviors
Panic attack:
apprehension or intense fear
Anxiety Disorders

Sources of Happiness
& Other Happiness Facts
Maslow’s Hierarchy
of Needs
Possess high self-esteem
Characteristics of Mentally Healthy People
In recent years, psychologists have become more interested in positive psychology
...attained when a person has reached his or her full potential
Proposed by Maslow as the level at which people achieve transcendence
the ability to bounce back from adverse events
a general sense that you have some control over your life
Happiness involves three components:
Engagement and meaning are the most important in giving people satisfaction and happiness
By the early to mid 20s, a more mature adult brain results
A growth spurt in adolescence occurs in the frontal cortex, where the “executive functions” of planning, organization, and rational thinking are controlled
Imbalances of neurotransmitters seem to be particularly important in a variety of mental disorders
Advances in imaging technologies (CAT scans, PET scans, MRIs, fMRIs) have allowed for many new discoveries
Since the 1980s, knowledge of the structure and function of the brain has increased dramatically
Mental illnesses are diseases that affect the brain
More modern approaches focus on ways to live with illness rather than prepare for death
Stages are not linear; people experience them in different orders or may revisit stages
1969: stages people go through when in the process of dying
Seeking support and keeping a journal can be part of the healing process
There is no right or wrong way to grieve and no specific timetable
Such intense emotional feelings can have a negative impact on one’s overall health
Insists qualities such as self-awareness, self-discipline, persistence, and empathy are more important than IQ
Mental disorder: a pattern of behavior associated with distress (pain) or disability or with significantly increased risk of suffering, death, pain, disability, or loss of freedom
A mental disorder is different from a psychological problem that can be considered normal, and it can be diagnosed from a set of symptoms
Examples include:
More than 20 million adults in the United States suffer from a depressive illness, affecting more women than men
Among the most common mental disorders around the world
Major depressive disorder (depression)
Bipolar disorder (manic episodes)
Along with depression, anxiety disorders are the most common mental disorders
Affect more than 40 million Americans 18 and older
Obsessive-compulsive disorder:
persistent, intrusive thoughts, impulses, or images that cause intense anxiety or distress
Generalized anxiety disorder:
worry about routine matters
intense fear of a situation or object, invoking immediate anxiety
Panic disorder:
recurrent unexpected panic attacks
Continued, compulsive behavior despite serious negative consequences
Physiological dependence reduces sensitivity to substance’s effects
Usually associated with substance use, but concept of addiction now extended to other areas of compulsive behaviors
Withdrawal symptoms occur when substance use stops
Anxiolytics (anti-anxiety)
Use has increased dramatically in recent years
Individuals often have a history of physical and/or sexual abuse as well as coexisting problems such as substance abuse or an eating disorder
Intentional injury to one’s own body, known sometimes as self-harm, self-mutilation, or self-injurious behavior
events or agents in the environment that can cause stress
When you appraise an event as positive, you experience
, or positive stress
When you appraise it as negative, you experience

The ANS (Autonomic Nervous System) is triggered via the sympathetic branch to activate the body’s organs to respond to the possible threat
All animals, including humans, have the ability to respond to emergencies they perceive as dangerous
a state of stability the body returns to once the stress response has been turned off
The process has three stages:

characterized by a tendency to view life events as challenges rather than threats
stress-resistant people seem to focus on immediate issues and explain their struggles in positive and helpful ways
Type A behavior pattern
Impulsive, achievement oriented, and highly competitive
Prime candidates for stress-related illnesses, and increased risk for a number of other diseases
Type B behavior pattern
More easygoing and less readily frustrated
Less susceptible to coronary heart disease
Different people respond differently to stressors
Personality traits
Researchers have concluded that every system in the body can be damaged by stress, including:
Forms of acute and chronic stress can contribute to the development of psychological illnesses
Mental health
Common forms of stomach ailments can be related to stress
Gastrointestinal system
Long-term stress response can cause various forms of heart disease
Cardiovascular system
Both brief and long-term stressors decrease immune function
Can bounce back from adversity
Take reasonable risks in order to grow
Show creativity
Capable of intimacy; no fear of commitment
Try to maintain a positive outlook on life
Not overwhelmed by emotions
Able to rely on others
Demonstrate social competence in relationships
Have a sense of control over their lives
Accept imperfections in themselves and others
Positive emotion & pleasure
(savoring sensory experiences)
(depth of involvement with family, work, romance, and hobbies)
(using personal strengths to serve some larger end)
People who are emotionally intelligent can:
Be socially competent
Recognize and respond to emotions in others
Motivate themselves
Manage their emotions and control their moods
Denial and isolation
Some mental disorders have a genetic component
Biological, psychological, social, and cultural factors
Mental disorders are more commonly caused by complex interactions
Cognitive disorders are caused by a pathology of the brain and are rare
Characterized by:
disorganized speech or behavior
other signs that an individual has lost touch with reality
In most cases, symptoms of the disease can be controlled with medication
Women in U.S. society are more likely to attempt suicide, but men are four times more likely to succeed
Suicide is the second-leading cause of death among college students
What leads a person to suicide?
Sometimes there is no apparent precipitating event or problem
Substance abuse and depression can be lethal
Depression and alcoholism may be involved in two-thirds of suicides
The symptom linking depression and suicide is a feeling of hopelessness
Behavioral signs that may indicate a person is thinking about suicide:
Sudden improvement in mood, accompanied by certain behaviors, such as giving away possessions
Increase in risk-taking behaviors
Intensified moodiness
Increasing social withdrawal and isolation
Do not leave a suicidal person alone
Do not keep the situation a secret
Encourage the person to get help through a suicide hotline or counseling
Encourage the person to talk
The danger of asking if someone is thinking about suicide (“planting the seed”) is a myth
Some stressful events and situations are overwhelming—don’t hesitate to seek counseling
What works for one person may not be helpful for another
Practice stress management on a regular basis
Inborn or acquired attitudes toward the demands of life
Habitual ways of thinking
Other critical areas include:
Many people live in a state of chronic stress
When stress is constant, it becomes damaging to the body
Societal issues
Time pressure, overload, and technology
Family and interpersonal stress
Money and financial worries
Job pressure
College stress
Daily hassles
For next class...
Spend 5 minutes doing absolutely nothing
John Green: Crash Course, Sci Show
Full transcript