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Gunpowder Empire Comparison-PESC Chart
Transcript of Gunpowder Empire Comparison-PESC Chart
BY: Abigail, Madyson, and Nadia
Political: Osman Bey , founder of the dynasty. Continued an unbroken succession from 1289. Dissolution of the empire occurred in 1923.The Ottoman state rested on a principle of absolute authority in the monarch. They Captured Constantinople in 1453 by Mehmed II, also known as Mehemed the conqueror. Successfully reached its peak during the reign of Suleyman "the Magnificent". The Ottoman Empire was a successful frontier state and a formiable military machine caused for Ottoman expansion.
Economic: When Warriors settled in frontier districts and pushed their boundaries forward, the warriors took spoils and gathered revenues that enriched the
and the central government.The City of Bursa developed into a major commercial and intellectual center.
Social: The Ottomans captured the Anatolian city of Bursa, which later became the capital of the Ottoman principality. The city of Edirine (adrianople) became second Ottoman capital and it served as a base for further expansion into the Balkans
Cultural: Osman and his followers sought to become ghazi, Muslim religious warriors. The Ottomans created an institution known as the
, which required the Christian population of the Balkans to contribute young boys to become slaves for the sultan.These boys received special training, learned Turkish, and converted to Isalm. The boys who became soldiuers were known as Janissaries, from the Turkish
( "new troops")
Political:The Safavid Empire was a strong Empire that challenged the Ottomans in the west and the Mughals in the east. The Empire declined when it became complacent with corrupt rule. They also relied more on the Persian bureaucraqcy and its administration techniques.
Economic: Land grants were given to the
officers to retain their loyalty .The Safavid Empire was fully revitalized by Shah Abbas the Great,The capital was moved to Isfahan. Isfahan encouraged trade with other lands and the Empire's economic strength came from its location on the trade routes
Social: The capital at Isfahan allowed for trade to occur and for interaction and communication to take place. Shah Abbas incorporated "slaves of the Royal household" into the army. Several victories in war against different people ( nomadic Uzbecks, Portuguese, Ottomans, ect,) brought most of northwestern Iran, the caucasus, and Mesopotamia under the Safavid rule.
Cultural: The Empire made Iran a center of art, architecture, poetry and philosophy
1. What are the similarities that these empires share?
They all expanded on land and created a formidable military machine
2. What pre-conditions allowed for the Imperial Expansion of these forces?
Ottomans: There location on the boarders of the Byzantine empire allowed them to have the opportunity to wage holy war.
Ming&Qing: High agricultural potential and their location allowed them to trade do to there location near the Sea.
Russian: They expanded in search of raw materials in Siberia such as fur.
Mughal: Babur was driven out of Central Asia and descended into northern India, where he established Mughal rule.
3.Which Empire lasted the longest?shortest?Why?
- The Ottoman empire lasted the longest into the early 1900s. The Mughal Empire lasted the shortest. the ottomans had better form of government that lasted longer and a military strength that allowed for them to last longer than all the other 5 empires.
4. How did these Empires interact with the Maritime Empires? What was the nature of that interaction.Through trade they were able to interact/ communicate and spread ideas, agriculture,and disease.
Autocracy that had emperors who turned to the eunuchs for government services.
Government purges: large scale executions
Scholars had key positions in the government
The capital moved to Beijing
Had centralized authority
Had new laws, records, emperors
Spent a lot of money on the Great Wall of China
They had a large food supply.
They had an increase from the past in global trading.
They traded porcelain, silk, alcohol, tobacco, crops, vegetables, and fruit.
They had a later policy of restraining commerce and the ban on shipping hurt commercial development.
civil service examination
The merchant class grew.
Widows were discouraged from remarrying
Civil service exam
Social structure: Gentry scholars -> peasant farmers-> artisans and craftsmen-> Merchants and traders
Literature, painting, and music developed quickly
Philosophies formed a new way of thinking
Other religions included Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism
The restoration of Confucian traditions encouraged subordination of women.
Unified Manchu tribes, issued law code, developed a strong military/ army
They had strong imperial leadership
Conquests into Mongolia and central Asia and Caspian Sea
Emperor sponsored maritime expeditions
Agriculture- settled in rich farm lands which produced more crops
Merchants settled in various regions
Growth mostly took place in an atmosphere of tight government requisition.
Most of the people were pastoral nomads.
The people were forbid to learn the Manchurian language
Social structure: Privileged class (Emperor and his family, scholars, etc.)-> Working class-> soldiers
The peoples were schooled in Chinese language.
The people were schooled in Confucian thought.
They had Confucian schools and academies.
Chinese men were forced to shave their heads and grow a Manchu- style queue.
They wanted to preserve their cultural identity, so they outlawed intermarriage between Manchus and Chinese
old Russia-Centralized feudal government prince ruled with help of noble landlords(Boyars). Major decisions were made by the prince and confirmed by the Boyar Duma. A bureaucracy developed-conducted everyday rule. Secret police used for control. Military expansion used to gain loyalty, church-state unity.
Westernized Russia- Centralized government-led by Czar as aristocratic power declined. Enlightenment ideals adopted. Developed schools, literacy, and science. Censored some western literature. Upgraded military
Old Russia- Agriculture- primitive methods, local consumption, small merchant class,small cities, no major technological changes. Based on serfdom. Enforced feudal system.
Westernized Russia- Developed trade network. Manufactured goods, furs, timber, wheat, began to use natural resources. Government regulations. Created port city of St. Petersburg
Social:Old Russia- Orthodox religion dominated. Heroic epics, music, festivals, onion shaped domes, religious art icon painting, written history, strong family ties, many relatives. Women seen as inferior, strict role.
Westernized Russia- Italian architects design buildings and palaces. Royal court spoke French. Performed ballet, advanced school for elite, culture gap develops between elite and commoners
Cultural: Language- Russsian
religion Russsian Orthodox
old Russian folklore and old Russian fairy tales
Political:Strong military that attacked from the west. Muslim rulers with centralized power; expensive war meant that high taxes were necessary. Muslim authority over rebellious Hindu population. Most famous ruler was Akbar, who married a Hindu, tried to reconcile
• Founders were displaced princes in search of a new kingdom
• Reversal of Akbar’s policies towards Hindus led to conflicts between Muslims and Hindus.
• Civil conflict and internal dissent = factor of decline
• Centralized political power broke down; left openings in many parts of India for foreign intervention
Economic:Limited trade, inland capital. Land grant system based on military service; conflicted with previous regional ruler claim. Cotton textiles = great demand by Europeans (started by the British). Major overseas destination for Asian products in return for Indian cotton textiles
• Head taxes on non-believers fell on poor Hindus, who could not afford them & caused resistance. Breakdown of the central government led to economic exploitation of Indian artisans and peasants by local lords and foreign and local merchants (namely the British)
Social:able have a prosperous economy because of the road system and the uniform currency that was unifying them. The people were mostly Muslim and under the reign of Aurangzeb they established many great monuments such as the Taj Mahal.
• Ruled mostly non-Muslim population
• Muslim and Hindu aristocrats were granted peasant villages for their support in return for cavalry and responding to emperor demands.
• Local leaders left alone in return for loyalty and taxes
• Established living quarters for the homeless
• Tried to regulate he consumption of alcohol
• Encouraged widows to remarry
• Ended child marriage
• Prohibited sati
• Eased purdah restrictions
• Wives of rulers had more power and influence.
• Power of women at court increased; ordinary women decreased.
• Reversals of Akbar’s policies on women (4 above)
• Restrictive practices for women (seclusion and veiling)
• Female babies not wanted (dowry costs)
• Civil strife and breakdown of services hurt the peasantry.
• Polo matches / Ox and tiger matches
•Games of pachisi (life-sized boars with palace dancers as chips)
Cultural:Muslim rulers over Hindu population' tensions from the beginning. New faith &endash; Sikhism, a blend of Islam and Hinduism; became militant after guru beheaded by Mughal ruler.
• Policy of reconciliation and cooperation with Hindu princes and population pursued by Akbar (policies below)
• Abolished the jizyab (head tax)
• Promoted Hindus to the highest ranks of government
• Ended ban on the building of new Hindu temples
• Ordered Muslims to respect the cow (viewed as sacred by the Hindus)
• Attempted to promote his new faith, Din-i-Ilahi, but it ultimately failed.
• Expanded painting workshops
• Taj Mahal
• Fed Fort at Delhi
• Mughal architecture – blend of Persian, Hindu, and Islamic traditions (Islamic domes, arches, and minarets and their balance with Hindu love or ornament of white marble, semi-precious stones, and floral and geometric patterns)