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Modals

Advice, obligation, prohibition, ability,permission, request, speculating.
by

america umanzor

on 24 October 2012

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Transcript of Modals

Modals How to use ... Advice, Obligation & Prohibition Should / Shouldn't Ought to / Ought not to 1.- Advice 2.- Opinion to say what is right to do Must "I think you should stay at home this evening" 1.- Strong advice to ourselves. "We all ought to use less electricity" 2.- Strong recommendations to others. 3.- For stating rules. Have to "I must try to get to bed early tonight." 1.- Obligation "You must try this cake, it's wonderful." "We have to sit exams every year" (They're compulsory) "Cyclists must wear helmets." Mustn't 2.- Don't / Doesn't have to "You don't have to leave now. You can stay as long as you like" 1.- Prohibition. "You mustn't touch the walls.
The paint isn't dry." Ability Can 1.- Ability in the Present 2.- Referred to a future event made in present "Can you come to dinner next week? No, but I can make the week after" Can you see that man on the roof?
Speak up, I can't hear you. Will be able 1.- Ability in the future "When she's 17, she'll be able to take her driving test" Could / couldn't 1.- Ability in the PAST Permission & Requests Can / Can't "My grandfather could speak three languages fluently" 1.- To ask for permission. * We use CAN and COULD with verbs of perception ( see, taste, hear) 3.- To ask SO to do STH. "Can I borrow your pen?"
2.- To give or refuse permission. "You can sit anywhere you like." "Can you explain that again, please?" "Pressing my ear to the door, I could hear what they were saying" Speculating Must 1.- Deduce things are definitely true "He must be tired. He has run 10 km" May (+) / Might (-) & Can 1.- Things are possibly true "John isn't answering his phone at work. He might not be at his desk. He could be in a meeting, or he may be having lunch" Can't 1.- impossible things. "This can't be Suzie's jacket. It's much too small" Must Have+PP/ Can't have + PP 1.- Logical deductions in PAST May have/ Might have/
Could have + PP "I put odd socks on this morning, I must have been half sleep" 1.- For speculating STH in past. "Your parents can't have been very happy when you told them you were dropping out of university" "Police think the robbers may have used a white van as their scape vehicle." By Magdalena Rozas
América Umanzor
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