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Guatemalan (Maya) Genocide

By; Kelly Fan and Katherine Jenings: Kleiber-5th
by

Kelly Fan

on 29 April 2013

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Transcript of Guatemalan (Maya) Genocide

Guatemala (Maya) Genocide
1981-1983 Events leading up to the Guatemalan Genocide. How did the Genocide start? Methods of Genocide Leaders of Genocide Short Term Results of Genocide Long Term Results of Genocide By: Kelly Fan and
Katherine Jenings Global Response The Guatemalan army and paramilitary teams attacked and destroyed 626 villages, killing or "disappearing" more than 200,000 people.
The Guatemalan army and paramilitary team would wait until a village would have a celebration or a market day to attack. They would then swoop in and have a mass killing.
Then man of each family were taken and forced to fight in the army.
The women and their children were then taken to "model villages", which were tightly controlled by the Guatemalan army.
Over 200,000 Maya fled as refugees to surrounding areas; Mexico, Belize, Honduras, the United States, etc.
Some Maya refugees traveled to the mountains, but would later die.
Over 700,000 civilians were recruited into civilian militias, forced to fight in the front line against the guerillas. The Guatemalan army killed women, children, and the elderly.
Women were usually raped while being tortured.
The wounds of pregnant women were cut open.
Children were often beat against walls, or thrown alive into pits where the bodies of adults were later thrown.
Some were doused in petrol and set alight, or dissembled while still alive.
Some civilians were shot repeatedly, or tortured and shut up alone to die in pain.
Victims of all ages often had their limbs amputated, or were impaled and left to die slowly. Scorched earth policy
Many of these actions were undertaken by Kaibiles.
Destroyed and burned buildings and crops.
Slaughtered livestock
Contaminated and cut off water supply to villages.
Destroyed sacred places and cultural symbols. The U.S. got involved with the war and genocide when the United Fruit Company began to feel threatened by land reforms made by President Guzman.
Throughout the genocide, the United States continued to provide military support to the Guatemalan government; mainly in the form of arms and equipment.
The School of the Americas in Georgia USA
Guatemalan Military Intelligence (MI).
Other nations remained apathetic to this situation probably because it was not widely publicized.
The United States was a main factor for the thousands of deaths in the civil war and genocide. The United States Spain Spain got involved when a Quiche Indian women, Ms. Menchú, and a group of Spanish and Guatemalan non-governmental organizations filed a suit in the Spanish national Court (SNC) against eight senior Guatemalan officials.
These eight senior Guatemalan officials were responsible for terrorism, genocide, and systematic torture.
Judge Santiago Pedraz issued an arrest warrant and an extradition request for the eight senior Guatemalan officials, who included: Jorge Sosa Orantes and Rios Montt.
The United Nations The U.N. states that arrest of General Hector Mario Lopez Fuentes, will send a strong signal that justice can prevail in the Central American Country.
General Hector Fuentes arrest also sends a strong signal to all perpetrators that conflict related sexual violence is not expectable, and that justice will ultimately prevail.
The United Nations set up peace agreements in Guatemala to restore and stabilize the economy. The Guatemala Civil War The Guatemalan president, Jorge Ubico had ruled Guatemala from 1931 till 1944.
Under president Ubico, the United Fruit Company was established.
Ubico was then overthrown by a civilian coup.
Jacobo Arbenz Guzman took power in 1944.
President Guzman established the "Ten years of spring".
Guzman created reforms which favored the peasants and the poor- Agrarian Law Reform.
The United Fruit Company began to feel threatened by the Guatemalan government.
Mayan Indians began to protest their individual rights.
The 36 year civil war and the three year genocide (November 15, 1981- January 15, 1983) had begun.
In the 1970s, the U.S. government continued its war in Guatemala in supporting right wing military governments that openly violated human rights.
General Fernando Romero Lucas Garcia became president of Guatemala in the late 1970s.
The death toll increased as he launched a campaign of unprecedented terror against all who opposed him.
In 1980, the government initiated "Operation Sophia" Guerilla Movement Unidad Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemalteca (URNG). URNG contained four guerilla organizations: the Guerrilla Army of the Poor (EGP), the Revolutionary Organization of People in Arms (ORPA), the Rebel Armed Forces (FAR), and the National Directing Nucleus of PGT (PGT-NDN).
In 1981, a small group of Mayan leaders marched to the Spanish Embassy, in a non-violent protest against government oppression of the native people.
Though, the Spanish ambassador urged the government to respond peacefully, his embassy was burned down, killing the protestors and the embassy staff.
The Guatemalan government felt threatened by the communist advocates and guerilla movements because they were scared communism was spreading and rising to take over Guatemala.
The government not only wanted to stop the guerillas, but also to destroy the cultural values that insured cohesion and collective action in Mayan community.
March 1982, General Efrain Rios Montt seizes power in a coup.
Established his "Guns and Beans" campaign: "If you are with us, we’ll feed you, if not, we’ll kill you" 1 July 1978 to 23 March 1982.
He created "Operation Sophia", which aimed at ending insurgent guerrilla warfare by destroying the civilian base in which they hid.
The death toll increased as he launched a campaign of unprecedented terror against all who opposed him.
He was president during the Spanish Embassy fire in Guatemala City on January 31, 1980.
Overthrown by Rios Montt President Fernando Romeo Lucas García March 23, 1982- August 8, 1983
Came to office through a civilian coup.
"Guns and Beans" Campaign: "If you are with us, we’ll feed you, if not, we’ll kill you".
On January 26, 2012 Ríos Montt appeared in court in Guatemala and was formally indicted for genocide and crimes against humanity
Montt ordered a systematic extermination of Mayan Indians using plans: Victoria 82 and Firmeza 83.
The worst atrocities happen while he is president. General Hector Mario Lopez Fuentes He served as Army Chief of Staff until his replacement in 1983 by Rodolfo Lobos Zamora
In July 2011, he was arrested on charges of genocide and crimes against humanity for his links to the killings of more than 300 Mayan civilians in the Ixil region during the administration of President Efrain Rios Montt
The U.N. states that his arrest will send a strong signal that justice can prevail in the Central American Country.
His arrest also sends a strong signal to all perpetrators that conflict related sexual violence is not expectable, and that justice will ultimately prevail. A democracy finally took over the government.
The United States denied all accusations of their involvement in the war and genocide.
Military still has a lot of power and control over civilians.
In 1994, a new democratic government led the country and an accord on human rights protection was signed by the government and URNG.
In 1996 a peace agreement made from the United Nations, was finally signed which concluded the end of the war.
Part of the peace agreement was the setting up of The Historical Clarification Commission (CEH)
The U.S. President Bill Clinton publicly apologized to the Guatemalans for the counter-terrorism campaign that led to thousands of civilian deaths in Guatemala’s civil war.
After the war and the genocide, impunity still remains.
Human rights investigators and defenders continue to be the targets of threats, and clandestine security organizations still operate with impunity.
Civil Patrol's continue to commit acts of genocide. After the civil war and the genocide, little progress has been made toward promoting accountability and to bringing human rights perpetrators to justice.
Institutional democratic party put to an end.
Three years after the war, the first civilian government in 16 years was established.
Also in June 2001, a legal action on behalf of 12 Mayan communities succeeded in bringing a charge of genocide against a former dictator who had seized power in 1982: Rios Montt
http://catscatscatscats.edublogs.org/files/2012/11/url-23q44ub.jpg http://intercontinentalcry.org/wp-content/uploads/efrain-rios-montt.jpg President Efrain Rios Montt
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