Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Minerals

Chapter Three
by

Sarah Niemeyer

on 20 April 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Minerals

Minerals
What is a Mineral?
What is a Mineral?
What is a Mineral
Identifying Minerals
Naturally Occurring
Inorganic
Always solid
Has a definite volume and shape
Chapter Three
A mineral is:
- naturally occurring
- inorganic
- solid
- crystal structure
- chemical composition
Vocabulary
Formed by processes in the natural world
A mineral cannot form from materials that were once part of a living organism
Solid
What is Volume??
Volume
The space that an object occupies
How do you find volume?
Length x Width x Height
Water Displacement
What is a Mineral?
Crystal Structure
Particles line up in a pattern and repeat over and over again
- the repeating pattern
= crystal
Quartz
Coal
Both
Quartz
Coal
Both
Quartz
Coal
Both
Quartz
Coal
Both
Quartz
Coal
Both
Mineral
Inorganic
Crystal
Streak
Luster
Mohs Hardness Scale
Cleavage
Fracture
What is a Mineral?
Definite Chemical Composition
Always contains certain elements
Almost all minerals are compounds
Two or more elements chemically combined
Color
Streak
Luster
Density
Over 3,800 minerals have been identified on Earth
- Each mineral has its own characteristic difference from every other mineral
How can you tell the difference between two similar minerals?
Easy to identify specific color
BUT does not help identify all minerals by name
Only a few minerals have their own characteristic color:
azurite,

malachite
Color of a mineral's powder
The color of a mineral's streak never changes, it is always the same
The way light reflects off of a mineral's surface
Minerals with metals in them are often shiny
Each mineral has a characteristic density.

Mass is determined using a scale

Volume is determined by water displacement
TALC
Hardness
Mohs Hardness Scale
Ranks ten minerals from softest to hardest
Based on a scratch test
A mineral may scratch any mineral softer than itself, but can be scratched by any mineral that is harder
The softest known mineral
Flakes when scratched by a fingernail
GYMPSUM
CALCITE
A fingernail can easily scratch
Can be scratched by a copper penny
FLUORITE
APATITE
FELDSPAR
QUARTZ
TOPAZ
CORUNDUM
DIAMOND
Can easily be scratched by glass
Can be scratched by glass
Can be scratched by a steel nail
Can scratch steel and glass easily
Can scratch quartz
It can scratch topaz
Hardest known mineral
It can scratch all other materials
Use the line graph of the mass and volume of pyrite samples to answer the following questions:
Sample B
- What is the mass?
- What is the volume?
- What is the density?
Sample C
- What is the mass?
- What is the volume?
- What is the density?
A piece of pyrite has a volume of 40cm3. What is its mass?
Crystal Systems
The elements in a mineral line up in a regular pattern and this pattern repeats to form a crystal.
Every crystal of a mineral has the same crystal structure.
When a mineral splits along a flat surface, it has the property called
cleavage.


Most minerals do not split apart evenly.
Fracture
describes how a mineral looks when it breaks apart in an irregular way
Hardness
How can you determine the hardness of a mineral that is not on the Mohs hardness scale?
Identifying
Minerals

Cleavage & Fracture
Cubic
Hexagonal
Special Properties
Some minerals can easily be identified by special physical properties
Magnetite
Halite
Magnetic
Salty Taste (salt crystal)
How Minerals Form
Minerals from Solutions
Minerals From Magma and Lava
The process by which minerals form is called
crystallization.

Atoms arrange in a specific pattern to form a
crystal structure.

In general, there are two ways in which minerals can form.

Minerals Formed by Evaporation
Halite:
formed millions of years ago when ancient seas slowly evaporated.
When the water cools, the elements and compounds leave the solution and crystallize, often growing into cracks in the rocks.
Magma
is molten material from inside Earth that hardens to form rock.

Lava
is magma that reaches the surface that also forms rocks when it cools and hardens.

When these liquids cool to a solid state, they form crystals.
Crystal Size
Slow cooling magma creates
large crystals.
Example: Magma deep in the Earth's surface

Fast cooling magma creates
small crystals
Example: Magma closer to the Earth's surface and magma that erupts and becomes lava
Mica
Flat, thin sheets
Kaolinite
white in color, Chalk
Graphite
Greasy feel, very soft, pencil lead
Solution
is a mixture in which one substance is dissolved in another
Example: Salt dissolved in water
When elements and compounds leave the water solution (i.e. water evaporates), it causes crystals for form
(crystallization)
Gypsum and Calcite also form in the same method of evaporation
Minerals From Hot Water Solutions
Deep underground, hot magma may can heat water to a high temperatures that may cause elements and compounds to dissolve in the water.
Pure metals that crystallize form veins, which are narrow channels or slabs of mineral that are different than the rocks around them.
Earth's crust is made up of minerals - a mixture of minerals lumped together forms a rock.

Sometimes, minerals may be concentrated together in the same location. These are called mineral ores. Ores are mined and specific minerals are separated from the rock.
The Uses of Minerals
Metals
Other Useful Minerals
Gemstones
You are surrounded by materials that come from minerals
Producing Metals from Minerals
Prospecting
Mining
What is luster?
Hard, colorful minerals that have a brilliant or glassy luster.
Vocabulary
Crystallization
Magma
Lava
Solution
Vein

Gemstone
Ore
Smelting
Alloy

How light reflects off of a mineral's surface
Gemstones Are:
- Rare (i.e. expensive)
- Once polished = Gem
3. materials used to make
many products
2. metals
1. source of gemstones
- hammered or molded
without breaking
Generally not as hard as gemstones
Useful because
- flattened into sheets
- they can be stretched into wire
Halite -> Salt (Food)
Muscovite -> Makeup (glitter)
Galena -> TV glass, auto batteries
Gypsum -> Wallboard, cement, stucco
Calcite -> Microscopes, Antacid Tablets
Talc -> Baby Powder (Talcum Powder)
Graphite -> Pencil Lead
A rock that contains a metal or other useful minerals that can be mined and sold at a profit =
ORE
Prospector
Anyone who searches, or prospects, for an ore deposit
3. Shaft Mines
2. Open Pit Mines
1. Strip Mines
Three Types
Soil is scraped away from the top
Pit is dug to remove ore deposits
Network of tunnels that follow ore veins
Unit 8: Mineralogy & Rocks
Section 1: Minerals

Learning Objectives
Define a mineral
Explain how minerals are identified
Explain how minerals form and where mineral resources are located

Vocabulary
Mineral
Inorganic
Streak
Luster
Full transcript