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Cities and Urban Planning Today
Transcript of Cities and Urban Planning Today
Lina Wayman Differences in areas of living
Differences in business areas
Differences in recreational areas Differentiated Areas of Wealth and Poverty "All of these differences, these divisions of the city, seem quite natural and common-sensical to most of us, most of the time. But there are disturbing aspects to some of them too.” A Great Divide "Public spaces... seem to offer less and less opportunity for different people to meet people unlike themselves, to mix, to express themselves in a public arena." CLASS (income and power) - involuntary
RACE - involuntary
ETHNICITY - voluntary
LIFESTYLE - voluntary Divisions of Growing Importance The Residential Cities:
The Luxury City Residential Cities
Racial, Ethnic and Cultural Cities Wealthy, clearly defined residential areas
Insulated from contact with nonmembers of their class
Can afford to live anywhere, but chose to live where they do (i.e. 5th Avenue, NYC) Poor areas are getting poorer, disproportionately occupied by members of minority groups, usually distinguishable by their color.
Business areas are fencing themselves off, requiring permission and ID to enter.
Public places becoming more segregated. Occupied by those who do well for themselves but work for others
Areas chosen for their culture, environmental or social amenities The Residential Cities:
The Gentrified City Traditional family suburban "city"
Stability, security, comfort
Escape from the "work-a-day" world The Residential Cities:
The Suburban City Slums, abandonment, displacement
Service cuts, deterioration
Public housing, rent regulation The Residential Cities:
The Tenement City Poor, excluded, unemployed, never employed, homeless, and shelter residents.
Total racial and ethnic segregation
Deteriorating housing, street level exploitation. The Residential Cities:
The Abandoned City Controlling City
City of Advanced Services
City of Direct Production
City of Unskilled Work
The Workless City Cities of Business Cities of Business:
The Controlling City Professional offices, ancillary services, technologically advanced communicative networks.
Inside or outside of a city, linked by transportation and communications.
Parallels the gentrified residential city Cities of Business:
The City of Advanced Services Manufacturing, low level production, government offices, "back offices"
Location varies, scattered around the city or outside of the city, quick and easy access to clients
Parallels the residential suburban city - "edge cities" Cities of Business:
The City of Direct Production Cities of Business:
The City of Unskilled Work Location of undesired facilities: sewage, storage facilities, potential environmentally hazardous but necessary activities.
Parallels the abandoned residential city
Often also a ghetto or contains areas of confined ethnic and immigrant populations Cities of Business:
The Workless City Race, Ethnicity and Culture Traditional concepts of streets and blocks
lost opportunities for fine-grained planning at the ground plane
"Better designed urban frameworks provide a way to create a more vital and diverse urbanism AND to incite more innovative architectural production across a broader spectrum of American design culture" Urban Design after Battery Park City
Opportunities for Variety and Vitality
in Large-Scale Urban Real Estate Development Not spatially rooted or bound (yachts, planes, limousines)
Top of the chain of command, and literally at the top
Tied together by communication and transportation, insulated from other parts of the city Warehouses, sweatshops, unskilled consumer services, immigrant industries
location based on economic relations and patterns of residential city.
Parallels the tenement city, often includes ethnic enclaves and concentrations of immigrants ghettos vs. enclaves
changing view of ghetto over time ; "define, isolate, and contain"
"new homeless" Tim Love Battery Park City Real estate development logic
Urban Poche techniques
Aesthetic monotony becomes the blame of the architecture rather than the quality of the urban design framework Queens West and the Olympic Village
Northpoint, Cambridge, Massachusetts
East Bayfront, Toronto
Fort Point, Boston Alternative Design Approaches Problem: uninspiring architecture
Solution: aggressive architecture Queens West and Big Architecture "A phased project, designed by many hands will result in true variety and not artificially induced variety conjured by compositional effort." Environmental and social values of open space
Open space vs. development "trade-off"
Regulatory approvals Northpoint - Unbalanced Focus on Open Space urban framework vs. quality of architecture
introduces inflections and exceptions into otherwise smooth axial grid
block plan with dimensional and proportional variety in architecture
practical approach - uses existing buildings, invites variety East Bayfront - Creative Friction with Estate Development Gentrification as a means of development - "naturally occurring neighborhood change
Marketing and programming vs. real estate development Fort Point Portfolio Urban design and the methods of development are changing.
No one person, business or development plan can prevail. Conclusion Variety creates more unique and successful spaces when there is an exchange between commerce and public space. "A new paradigm for urban design can arise only with a careful coordination between building types, parcel configurations, and a larger urban design framework, and it requires a collaboration between architects and real-estate finance analysts who are not satisfied with the status quo." Saskia Sassen The Global City
Strategic Site/New Frontier focuses on the overall connection between small "cities" within cities and how that relates to the idea of the global city "Developing categories such as place and production process does not negate the centrality of hypermobility and power. Rather it brings to the fore the reality that many of the resources necessary for global economic activities are not hypermobile and are, indeed, deeply embedded in places, notably places such as global cities and export processing zones." discusses the role of disadvantaged actors in the global economy
minorities and women are both two groups that are heavily relied upon to promote the vitality of the global economy and yet they are rarely regarded in this capacity
Sassen believes that these little-noted "actors" can bring about a new type of politics and through this truly solidify their role in this global city The Economic Dimension "...it allows me to examine the possibility of a new politics of traditionally disadvantaged actors operating in this new transnational economic geography. This is a politics that lies at the intersection of economic participation in the global economy and the politics of the disadvantaged, and in that sense would add an economic dimension, specifically through those who hold the other jobs in the global economy..." "There is no fully dematerialized firm or industry." Place and Production in the Global Economy Apple - California Nike - Oregon Sony - Toyko large distinction within service based urban economics between executives and "lowly" workers despite the importance that each of these actors play within the economy
women and immigrants hold the lowly paid and manual jobs under conditions of "sharp social, earnings, and often racial/ethnic segregation"
Sassen points out that it is much easier to mark corporate executives as being necessary for an advanced economic system as opposed to truckers, factory workers, and janitors Labor Aristocracy re-introducing the community and household as an important economic space in global cities
this has created a large impact on "women and men, on male-typed and female-typed work cultures, on male and female centered forms of power and empowerment"
increased access to public services and public resources for women gives them a chance to fully integrate themselves in mainstream society Informalization "This greater participation by women suggests the possibility that they may emerge as more forceful and visible actors and make their role in the labor market more visible as well." Sassen notes that the dominant corporate culture can only make up part of a city and that the "others" (referring to lowly wage workers) need to not only be acknowledged but observed with the same level of importance since they have the capability of making significant impacts in the global economy Conclusion Neil Smith Gentrification, the Frontier, and
the Restructuring of Urban Space there is a long history of cities being viewed as "urban wilderness" where disease, danger, and crime reign supreme
gentrification - new urban frontier
Frederick Jackson Turner's idea of the expansion of the frontier line was one that was perpetuated by banks, railroads, the state, etc. and not by individual pioneers
"expansion of the economy involved the expansion of the geographical arena over which the economy operated" "[the] frontier of the American economy is nowadays urban and suburban rather than peripheral to the civilized areas." the urban frontier is a frontier in the economic sense
social, political, and cultural transformations are often dramatic and important, but they are associated with the development of an economic frontier
there are a variety of different "frontiers" that are encompassed in the larger, global frontier Urban Frontier the process of urban growth and development demonstrates a constant patterning, structuring, and restructuring of urban space
this restructuring is a component of a larger restructuring of advanced capitalist economies Restructuring of Urban Space "We should expect the creation of a bourgeois playground, the social Manhattanization of the urban core to match the architectural Manhattanization that heralded the changing employment structure." The End of Suburbanization? Cities in Quarters - Peter Marcuse Fragmented Cities Gated Communities - 4 million
All privately regulated communities - 15 million
What about other forms of exclusion?
Social custom regulations
Racially discriminatory neighborhoods
Income eligible neighborhoods Are our cities really this divided? Is this something that is occurring naturally? Is this really that alarming? What do you think? Are we literally being quartered?
If separation is natural, is the end result of this division going to be a "death" of the city? What do you think about this space? Can naturally occurring neighborhood change really be shaped by real-estate speculators? Can this be controlled by a single entity? ROUNDTABLE DISCUSSION:
What are your thoughts on the top 10 future influences on the American metropolis? Do these seem legitimate?
Can you think of any other influences that should be added to the list? Fishman - Past and Future Influences Trump Tower - Atrium La Defense - Paris Conclusions... The 10 most likely influences on the
American metropolis for the next 50 years 1. Growing disparities of wealth
2. Suburban political majority
3. Aging of the baby boomers
4. Perpetual “underclass” in central cities and inner-ring suburbs
5. “Smart growth”: environmental and planning initiatives to limit
6. The Internet
7. Deterioration of the “first-ring” post-1945 suburbs
8. Shrinking household size
9. Expanded superhighway system of “outer beltways” to serve new
10. Racial integration as part of the increasing diversity in cities and
suburbs Do you think Sassen makes a good point about women's
new role in this labor hierarchy? What type of political influence do you think Sassen is referring to throughout this piece?
Does she make a valid point in your opinion? Is gentrification a good thing or a bad thing? How have things changed?
Are we still expanding our geographical arenas, or are we expanding inside our already established arenas?