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Transcript of Integumentary System
How does the rate of recovery from cold in two different skin regions relate to the vascularity of these two areas?
Hypothesis: If an area is more vascular (populated with more veins), then that area will recover its skin temperature to a homeostatic level of 37 degrees C quicker than an area with less vascularity. Integumentary System The integumentary system houses the largest organ in the human body - the skin.
It serves as the body's first line of defense against viruses, bacteria, and other parasites.
This sensory organ has receptors to detect temperature, touch, pressure, and pain.
Contains the epidermis, dermis, and
hypodermis Layers of the Skin Layers of the Skin Outermost layer of the skin made of stratified squamous epithelial tissue
Most cells are keratinocytes, producing keratin to create the toughness of the epidermis
Melanocytes produce melanin, giving the skin color
Epidermal dendritic cells alert the immune system of invasion by bacteria, virus, and other microbes
Merkel cells serve as sensory nerve endings at the epidermal-dermal junction
Five layers of strata: Epidermis Layers of the Skin Epidermis Dermis Bibliography for Pictures - pt. IV Layers of the Skin Dermis Second layer made of dense fibrous connective tissue
Contains collagen and elastic fibers for toughness, elasticity, and hydration
Responsible for maintaining homeostatic body temperature
Rich nerve and blood cell supply
Two major regions: papillary layer
and reticular layer Papillary layer
Projections called dermal papillae attach to the epidermis above
Contains capillary loops that furnish nutrients for the epidermis; and house pain and touch receptors
Hands and feet are arranged in definite patterns to increase friction and gripping ability Stratum basale - deepest layer, containing well-nourished cells that constantly divide
Stratum lucidum - completely made of dead cells only present on hairless parts of the body
Stratum spinosum - think bundles of intermediate filaments made of pre-keratin
Stratum granulosum - flattened, deteriorating cells
Stratum corneum - dead cells, sacs filled with
keratin Layers of the Skin Dermis Reticular Layer
Below the papillary layer
Contains irregularly arranged connective
Blood vessels, sweat and oil glands
Deep pressure receptors called lamellar corpuscles
Phagocytes to prevent bacteria from continuing through the body Layers of the Skin Hypodermis Last layer composed of adipose tissue
Stores fat and nutrients
Absorbs shocks and insulates
deeper tissues from extreme
Responsible for "curves" more
abundant on women than men Cutaneous glands
Arrector pili muscle Vascularity Dermis contains blood vessels - therefore it is responsible for skin temperature regulation
Lab relates to specific body regions' vascularity, and how the vascularity effects skin temperature recovery
Cheek and middle finger were compared in the following experiment: Hypothermia When the body loses heat faster than it can produce heat, hypothermia arises.
Body temperature drops below 95 F
Heart, nervous systems, and other systems cannot operate when body temperature increasingly drops. Hypothermia Causes Exposure to cold weather or water for prolonged periods of time
Inadequate attire when in a cold environment
Failure to remove wet and cold clothing
Overuse of air conditioning / lack of
heat in the home
Accidents - falling into water Hypothermia Symptoms Drowsiness and low energy
Lack of coordination
Lack of concern [of one's condition]
Loss of consciousness
Slow, shallow breathing Hypothermia Diagnosis Diagnosis is based on:
2) Conditions the patient was in when recovered
In mild cases, an exam is performed using a rectal thermometer.
Most cases are easily recognized as hypothermia. Hypothermia Treatments First aid
Remove patient from cold environment
Remove wet or cold clothing
Swaddle with blankets
Monitor physical symptoms - especially breathing
Warm beverages and shared body heat
Cavity lavage Hypothermia Occurence and Outlook in the US Hypothermia most frequently occurs in New Mexico, Alaska, North Dakota, and Montana.
An average of 21% of moderate hypothermic patients die;
40% of severe hypothermic patients die.
Approximately 700 people in the United States die from hypothermia annually.
65% of hypothermic deaths occur among males in the US.
People older than 65 are at a great risk, accounting
for 50% of reported cases of hypothermia. Research The results in which we compared our experiment to was:
Performed by: H. Freeman and R. F. Nickerson
Published on: December 17, 1938
Published to: The Journal of Nutrition
Performed at: Worcester State Hospital in Worcester, Massachusetts
Experiment: Temperatures on nine points on the right anterior half of the body were recorded at both 20 C and 15 C.
Results: The temperature of the forehead, an area with greater vascularity, fell least. The temperature of the middle finger, an area with lesser vascularity, fell greatest. Materials Computer
Vernier computer interface
Vernier Surface Temperature Sensor
Ice Procedure Step 1:
We recorded the temperature of a patient's cheek in room temperature for 50 seconds using the temperature sensor.
We removed the sensor and applied ice to the cheek for 30 seconds.
We re-applied the sensor immediately and recorded the skin temperature of the cheek for 420 seconds.
We repeated steps 1-3 on the middle finger of the patient's right hand.
We then repeated the experiment on a total of 10 patients. Frostbite Frostbite arises when the skin and tissue underneath the epidermis freeze.
Frostnip is mild, superficial frostbite is moderate, deep frostbite is severe.
Areas of the body prone to cold exposure are more likely to succumb to frostbite.
The skin affected becomes cold, numb, hard,
and possibly changes color. Frostbite Stages Frostnip
Affects epidermis only
Skin turns red and physically feels cold
Pain and tingling occurs while
re-warming the skin
Most common stage of frostbite Frostbite Superficial Affects the epidermis and dermis
Skin turns white and pale
Ice crystals form in the tissue
Skin feels deceptively warm
Skin may appear mottled, blue or purple as it's warmed
Stinging, burning and swelling while re-warming
Fluid-filled blisters may appear 24 to 36 hours after rewarming the skin Frosbite Deep Frostbite Affects epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis
Deceptive numbness, losing all sensation of cold, pain or discomfort
Joints or muscles no longer work
Large blisters form 24 to 48 hours after
Affected area turns black and hard
Frostbite may spread if not properly
taken care of Frostbite Symptoms Painful, prickly or itching sensation
Red, white, pale or grayish-yellow skin
Hard or waxy-looking skin
Cold or burning feeling
Clumsiness due to joint and muscle stiffness
Blistering, in severe cases Frostbite Causes Exposure to cold-weather conditions
Direct exposure to freezing materials (ice)
Lack of proper attire while exposed to cold environments
Lack of skin covering
while in cold
environments Frostbite Diagnosis Frostbite is diagnosed based upon:
Appearance of the skin
Recent exposure to cold
Tests may be conducted to determine what stage of frostbite a case lies in.
MRIs, X-rays, or bone scans check the bones and muscles for frostbitten damage. Frostbite Treatments First-aid
Protect skin from further exposure
Get out of the cold and remove wet clothes
Gradually warm frostbitten areas - warm water at 40 to 42 C and wrap affected area in blankets
Don't walk on frostbitten feet or toes
Don't use frostbitten hands or fingers Frostbite Treatment Medical treatment
Rewarm the skin
Wrapping of the area with thick dressings or bandages to protect the skin
Debridement - removal of damaged tissue
Thrombolytics - drugs given through an (IV) line to lower the necessity of amputation. These drugs are used only in the most serious situations and within 24 hours of exposure
Amputation in severe cases Frostbite Occurence and Outlook in the United States Frostbite is uncommon in most of the US, except for northern states and Alaska.
US Army data noted an incidence of frostbite of 38.2 cases per 100,000 persons in 1985, decreasing to 0.2 cases per 100,000 persons in 1999.
African American men and women are 2.2-4.0 times more likely to exhibit frostbite. Appendages of the Skin Bibliography for Pictures - pt. 1 Admin. "Generalized Hypothermia « Allied Health World Blog." Allied Health Schools | Healthcare Careers and Degrees. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <http://www.alliedhealthworld.com/blog/?p=272>.
"BASF Global - BASF - The Chemical Company - Corporate Website." Skin Care Forum. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <www.skin-care-forum.basf.com/images-/home/the-skin-s-blood-vessel-system/2006/01/19?id=9a7d8dcb-5f5d-4bce-92d8-4840cbd71a81&mode=Detail>.
"Big freeze could cost UK economy more than £6bn | UK news | The Guardian ." Latest US news, world news, sport and comment from the Guardian | guardiannews.com | The Guardian . N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2013. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2010/dec/01/snow-cost-uk-economy-more-than-6bn>.
Category. "Frostbite - First Aid for Frostbite." About.com First Aid - First Aid & Emergency Preparedness. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2013. <http://firstaid.about.com/od/heatcoldexposur1/tp/Frostbite-First-Aid.htm>.
"Cold weather payments triggered as temperatures plummet to zero | Money | guardian.co.uk ." Latest US news, world news, sport and comment from the Guardian | guardiannews.com | The Guardian . N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2013. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/money/2010/nov/25/cold-weather-payments-heating-costs>. Bibliography for Pictures - pt. II Curtis, Rick. "Outdoor Action Guide to Hypothermia & Cold Weather Injuries." Princeton University - Welcome. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <http://www.princeton.edu/~oa/safety/hypocold.shtml>.
DISCIPLINE. "Nail Cross-Section - BodyPartChart Official Site." BodyPartChart Official Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <http://www.bodypartchart.com/product/nail-cross-section/nail-cross-section-bpc-small-image/>.
"DermGunner." DermGunner. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <http://dermgunner.com/>.
"Epidermis (skin) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epidermis_(skin)>.
"EverythingHealth: Frostbite." EverythingHealth. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2013. <http://healthwise-everythinghealth.blogspot.com/2010/01/frostbite.html>.
"Fat Layer in Skin." Health Information | Rush University Medical Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <http://health.rush.edu/HealthInformation/women's%20center/2/19490.aspx>. Bibliography for Pictures - pt. III "Figure 2: Appearance of grade IV frostbite with completely mummified feet 3 weeks... - Open-i." Open-i - Open Access Biomedical Image Search Engine. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <http://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=2827043_1757-1626-0002-0000006635-2&query=the&fields=all&favor=none&it=none&sub=none&uniq=0&sp=none&req=4&simCollection=2694014_co-2-637f2&npos=108&prt=3>.
"Frostbite Causes and Image." First Aid Guide and Emergency Treatment Instructions . N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <http://firstaid.webmd.com/understanding-frostbite-basics>.
"How to Treat Mild Hypothermia | eHow.com." eHow | How to Videos, Articles & More - Discover the expert in you. | eHow.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <http://www.ehow.com/how_6316_treat-mild-hypothermia.html>.
Kirtley, Paul. "Hypothermia and How to Avoid it." Wilderness Bushcraft Blog: Paul Kirtley. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <http://paulkirtley.co.uk/2010/hypothermia/>. "Mayo Clinic medical information and tools for healthy living - MayoClinic.com." Mayo Clinic. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2013. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/medical/IM04298>.
"Recognize and Prevent Hypothermia when cold kayaking in Florida." Kayak Jacksonville | Kayaking in Jacksonville Florida | Guided Tours North Florida | Paddle Tours | Kayaking Eco Tours | Kayaking Lessons | Stand Up Paddle Boarding | Ponte Vedra | St Augustine | Amelia Island | Cumberland Island | Downtown Jacksonville. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <http://www.firstcoastoutfitters.com/kayaking-blog/when-hypothermia-strikes>.
"Skin Structure." Artistry. Alticor, Inc., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <www.artistry.com/skin-care/about-skin/skin-structure>.
"The Dermis." Show Me Some Skin. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <showmesomeskin.wikispaces.com/Dermis>.
UV, sunlight; protects DNA from. "Lecture 7: Integumentary System." Computing Services for Faculty & Staff. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~uzwiak/AnatPhys/APFallLect7.html>. Bibliography for Structure and Diseases "Frostbite." MedScape Reference. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2013. <emedicine.medscape.com/article/926249-overview#a0156>.
"Frostbite - MayoClinic.com." Mayo Clinic. N.p., 7 Oct. 2011. Web. 14 Feb. 2013. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/frostbite/DS01164>.
"Hypothermia." MedSpace Reference. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <emedicine.medscape.com/article/770542-overview#a0199>.
"Hypothermia - MayoClinic.com." Mayo Clinic. N.p., 8 June 2011. Web. 14 Feb. 2013. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hypothermia/DS00333>.
Marieb, Elaine Nicpon. "Skin and Body Membranes." Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology. 10th ed. San Francisco: Pearson/Benjamin Cummings, 2012. 109-129. Print. Bibliography for Lab Research Freeman, H., and R. F. Nickerson. "Skin and Body Temperatures of Normal Individuals Under Cold Conditions ." Journal of Nutrition. Version Vol. 15 no. 6 597-606. N.p., 1 June 1938. Web. 15 Jan. 2013. <http://jn.nutrition.org/content/15/6/597.full.pdf+html?sid=51f97fc7-1aaf-4b23-a8a0-a589a7ed9b95>. Analysis Questions Q: Is the baseline temperature recovered with the 7 minutes during which data is collected?
Q: Estimate how long it would take for full recovery to be achieved for each of the two runs.
Q: Relate this to everyday experiences where you have been exposed to cold.
Q: Which area of skin tested had the most rapid recovery of temperature after cooling? Explain.
Q: Alcohol causes dilatation of arterioles and a sensation of warmth. Would you recommend that someone who is stranded in the snow drink alcohol?
Q: Hypothermia can result when the body's homeostatic mechanisms are no longer adequate to counter the effect of high external temperatures. Describe the skin color of someone who is in the first stages of hypothermia. Conclusion Hypothesis was proven correct
Excitability causes skin temperature to rise quicker than normal.
Room temperature could have caused skin temperature to rise quicker or slower than normal.
For certain patients, the tape did not stick so well causing the sensor to slip out of place and record a different area's skin temperature for a small amount of time.
If further study is done, a more controlled environment would be necessary to isolate the patient and control the room temperature for the most accurate results.