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Form 2 The Perfect Tense: Present Perfect Simple/Continuous & Past Perfect Simple/Continuous.

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Oriana Said

on 11 October 2013

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Transcript of Form 2 The Perfect Tense: Present Perfect Simple/Continuous & Past Perfect Simple/Continuous.

The Present Perfect
IMPORTANT
The
Present Perfect
is formed:
The verb:
HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE
I / You / We / They
He / She / It
have / 've
has / 's
Positive
Negative
have not / haven't
has not /hasn't
Personal Pronouns
How is the Present Perfect Formed?
Past Simple
- Present Perfect
- Present Simple
To talk about a
finished action
in the Past.
A
recent event
OR a
past event
which the speaker feels is
connected
with the
present.
Talk about
facts
or
present events
.
Present Perfect Simple vs. Present Simple
When is the Present Perfect Used?
When is the Present Simple used?
1. For situations or events which began in the
past
and CONTINUES in the
present.

For Example
: Saint Elias College has been a school since 1970.
NOT Saint Elias College was a school since 1970.


2. When we want to say how long this event or situation
has been going on
.
The Present Perfect NOT the present simple is used for:
Saint Elias was a school in the past and is still a school.
For Example:
It hasn't rained for the past three months.
NOT It didn't rain for the past three months.
Go has two past participles.
Gone: Andrew
has gone
to buy lunch.

Andrew is either on the way or has arrived at the canteen.
Attention!
Been: Andrew
has been
to buy lunch.

Andrew went to buy lunch and has come back.
Present Perfect vs. Past Simple
The Present Perfect NOT the past simple is used for:
The
Present Perfect
means which one of these?

a. At a time up to now.
b. A finished period of time.
When is the Present Perfect Used?
When is the Past Simple used?
1. When we
do not know
exactly when the past event
took place
OR it is
not important
.

For Example:

We
have started
school.

2. Use the past simple is used to give details later.

For Example
:
We have started school. We
started
on Monday.
Exact time.
On Your Note: Active Grammar Unit 4, pgs. 20 & 21, Exs. A, D & F.

Write your work

IN FULL
and your answers
IN PENCIL.
Present Perfect Simple vs. Present Perfect Continuous
1. ... for situations or events which STARTED in the
past
and CONTINUE into the
present or which have just stopped.
The bus has just arrived.

2. ... for longer more
permanent
situations.
People have spoken English for the past 1500 years.

3. ... for facts or events.
Mark has gone home.
The Present Perfect Simple is used...
The Present Perfect Continuous is used...
1. To emphasize how
long a situation has been going on.

I have been waiting for the past half hour!

2. ... for shorter temporary situations.
I have been learning French for the past three months.

3. ... for
changes.
He has been leaving early lately.
For a situation that is still going on, or has just ended when you want to emphasise how long the situation has been going on.

Present Perfect Simple:
She
has lived
in this house for ten years.

Present Perfect Continuous:
She
has been living
in this house for ten years.

In both cases this woman is still living in the same house.
The present perfect
simple
NOT the continuous is used
to talk about how often someone has done something.

For Example:
- Manuel

has

already

eaten

twice today!
NOT
Manuel
has
already
been eating
twice today.
State verbs are verbs that
show a state
and
not an action
. These can be grouped according to verbs that show...
... thought - believe, doubt, know, understand.
... possession - have, own, want.
... senses - hear, see, smell.
... emotion - love, hate, need.
The present perfect
simple
NOT the continuous is used

with state verbs.

For Example:
-
I
have owned
my car for the past three years.
NOT
I
have been owning
my car for the past thre years.

-
Mario
has understood
the perfect tense.
NOT
Mario
has been understanding
the perfect tense.
Positive
Negative
Pronouns
I / You / We / They
He / She / It
HAVE + BEEN + ING
HAS + BEEN + ING
HAVE NOT + BEEN + ING
HAS NOT + BEEN + ING
On Your Note: Active Grammar Unit 5, pgs. 24 & 25, Exs. C, F & G.

Write your work

IN FULL
and your answers
IN PENCIL.
With PAST TIME EXPRESSIONS (last week, yesterday, last night, a week ago and so on) use the PAST SIMPLE or PAST CONTINUOUS and not the present perfect simple or continuous.
Past Perfect Simple & Past Perfect Continuous
The present perfect simple is formed...
So the past perfect simple is formed...
So the past perfect continuous is formed...
The present perfect continuous is formed...
For example:

Past Perfect Simple: I
had eaten
a cake.

Past Perfect Continuous: I
had been eating
a cake when the phone rang.
The past perfect is used to talk about events which
happened before another event
in the past.
For example:
When you came to school you had already bought your uniforms.
Present
Past
Past
Present
You bought your uniform.
You came to school.
The past perfect simple is used to talk about things that
did not happen as you wanted them to happen
.

For example:

We

had planned
to go swimming but it was too windy.

You can also use the past simple.


For example:

We
wanted

to go watch a film but we didn't have enough time
The past perfect continuous.
- Not very common.

- It is used to describe an activity IN THE PAST which began before something else happened and continued during this second activity of finished just before it.
Past
I was eating a cake.
(An activity IN THE PAST which began before...)
The phone rang and I was still eating the cake.

(Something else happened- the phone rang- and continued during this second activity- I was still eating the cake and I continued eating it when the phone started ringing.)
I
had been eating
a cake when the phone rang.
On Your Note: Active Grammar Unit 6, pgs. 27, 28 & 29, Exs. B, E & F.

Write your work

IN FULL
and your answers
IN PENCIL.
Sometimes both the present perfect simple and the present perfect continuous can both be used for...
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