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Sociology 101 Final Project

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HannahBeth Alfrey

on 26 November 2014

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Transcript of Sociology 101 Final Project

Sociology 101 Final Project
Hannah Beth Alfrey - 11/25/14
GNI Categorization: Low Income
GDP: $54.4 billion
Per Capita: $1,500
Population Living Below $1.25/day: 38.1%

Population: 35,918,915 people
Ethnic Groups: Other 29.6%; Baganda 16.9%; Banyankole
9.5%; Basoga 8.4%; Bakiga 6.9%; Iteso 6.4%; Langi 6.1%; Acholi 4.7%; Bagisu 4.6%; Lugbara 4.2%; Bunyoro 2.7%
Uganda: Country Introduction
GNI Categorization: Lower-Middle Income
GDP: $53.2 billion
Per Capita: $2,400
Population Living Below $1.25/day: 9.6%

Population: 23,130,708 people
Ethnic Groups: Cameroon Highlanders 31%; Equatorial Bantu
19%; other African 13%; Kirdi 11%; Fulani 10%; Northwestern Bantu 8%; Eastern Nigritic 7%; non-
African 1%
Cameroon: Country Introduction
Singapore: Country Introduction
GNI Categorization: Upper-Middle Income
GDP: $13.4 trillion
Per Capita: $9,800
Population Living Below $1.25/day: 11.8%

Population: 1,355,692,576 people
Ethnic Groups: Han Chinese 91.6%; Other Minorities 7.1%;
Zhuang 1.3%
China: Country Introduction
GNI Categorization: High Income
GDP: $339 billion
Per Capita: $62,400
Population Living Below $1.25/day: N/A

Population: 5,567,301 people
Ethnic Groups: Chinese 74.2%; Malay 13.3%; Indian 9.2%;
Other 3.3%
Historical Background
- first settlements were established on “Sea Town” in 1299
- founded as a British trading colony in 1819
- Singapore became a main British naval base in East Asia in
- Japan bombed Singapore during WWII in 1941
- Japan assumed power in Singapore in 1942
- WWII ends; Singapore returned to British rule in 1945
- joined the Malaysian Federation in 1963
- became an independent country on August 9, 1965
- the last British military forces withdrew from Singapore in
- economic recession begins in 1998 as a part of the Asian
Financial Crisis
Geographical Sketch
Location: Southeast Asia; island between Malaysia
and Indonesia
Total Area: 697 sq. km.
Size Comparison: 3.5 times the size of Washington DC
Climate: hot, humid with monsoon seasons
(December-March; June-September)
Arable Land: 0.89%
Highest Point: 166 m
Lowest Point: 0 m
Natural Resources: fish; deepwater ports
Material Culture
Technology: government operates radio and television production
so some media is sensored
Internet Users: 3.235 million / 74.18% of population
Cell Phone Subscriptions: 156 per 100 people
Architectural Styles: has influences from colonial-style houses,
Chinese shop houses, Malay stilt houses,
Indian bungalows; has modern skyscrapers
Traditional Clothing: very modern and fashion-forward; modesty
is important; but traditional wear is still
used: for example, the Indian sari, salwar
kameez or jippa, cheongsam, kebaya, etc.
Food/Cuisine: staple: rice; commonly eaten with meat and
vegetables; typically spicy
Tourist Attractions: Singapore Zoo; Baba House; Orchard Road;
Singapore River Cruise
Non-Material Culture
Language: Mandarin 36.3%; English 29.8%; Malay 11.9%; Hokkien
8.1%; Tamil 4.4%; Cantonese 4.1%; Other 3.4%; Teochew 3.2%
Religious Beliefs: Buddhist 33.9%; None 16.4%; Muslim 14.3%; Taoist
11.3%; Christian 11%; Catholic 7.1%; Hindu 5.2%; Other 0.7%
Norms: understanding "Singlish" (a combination of many
languages); refer to superiors as "uncle" and "auntie";
hand an object to someone using two hands
Symbols: lions, merlions, orchids
Subculture: urban
Historical Background
Historical Background
Historical Background
- in 1472, the first "outsiders" (the Portuguese) come to Cameroon
in 1520, the Portuguese begin selling Cameroonians; trans-atlantic slave trade begins
- in the 1700s, the Fulani people invade Cameroon bringing in the Islamic faith
- in 1858, the slave trade in Cameroon ends, shifting the economy toward palm oil, ivory, and gold
- in 1884, Germany takes control and names the land "colony of Kamerun"
- in 1918, Germany loses control of Cameroon at the end of WWI; land is divided between England and France
- in 1960, the French Cameroon becomes the Republic of Cameroon and is granted independence
- in 1961, British Cameroon votes to join Nigeria and borders are developed
- in 1982, Paul Biya comes into power as prime minister
- in 1990, a draft for a multiparty government is developed by Biya
- in 1992, Cameroon's first presidential election is held; Biya wins the majority popular vote with 39.9%
- first evidence of people forming a society by migrating from South Sudan, naming their
new region Buganda in the 1600s
- the first British explorer visits “Buganda” (future Uganda) in 1862
- the king of Buganda allows Christian missionaries to enter his kingdom in 1875
- Uganda falls under British rule in 1894. This region came under British rule in order for the British
government to protect the Source of the Nile. During this time, Winston Churchill visited Uganda
and coined the term “the Pearl of Africa”.
- achieved independence from Britain on October 9, 1962
- Idi Amin: dictator from 1971-1979; came into power after a military coup and overthrew the system of
prime ministers. He named himself President for life. He forced all of the Asians (approx. 50,000) to
leave Uganda and killed over 300,000 people, mostly Christians.
- Britain breaks all diplomatic ties with Uganda after the actions of Idi Amin in 1976
- Tanzania, together with the anti-Idi Amin army, invades Uganda and forces Amin to flee the country
in April 1979
- After years of civil war, the National Resistance Army assumes control of Uganda and the country
begins to grow and rebuild in 1986.
- Joseph Kony creates the Lord’s Resistance Army in 1989 to oppose the NRA. But because of his
brutal tactics (i.e. forcing children to fight), he was not a popular option for the local people.
“The Invisible Children” movement started because of this issue.
- Ugandan army push Kony and the LRA into the Congo freeing Uganda from his rule in 2009.
Geographical Sketch
Geographical Sketch
Material Culture
Material Culture
Non-Material Culture
Non-Material Culture
Stage 1, Part B: Data Indicators
- Family & Gender
- Health & Medicine
- Education
- Economy
- Government
Location: East Africa; surrounded by Kenya, South
Sudan, Tanzania, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Total Area: 241,038 sq. km
Size Comparison: slightly smaller than Oregon
Climate: tropical; rainy with two dry seasons
(December-February; June-August)
Arable Land: 27.94%
Highest Point: 5,110 m
Lowest Point: 621 m
Natural Resources: copper; cobalt; limestone; salt;
gold; hydropower; arable land
where I used to live!
where I lived this past summer!
Family & Gender in Singapore:
Health & Medicine in Singapore:
Education in Singapore:
Economy in Singapore:
Government in Singapore:
Family & Gender in China:
Health & Medicine in China:
Education in China:
Economy in China:
Government in China:
Family & Gender in Uganda:
Health & Medicine in Uganda:
Education in Uganda:
Economy in Uganda:
Government in Uganda:
Family & Gender in Cameroon:
Health & Medicine in Cameroon:
Education in Cameroon:
Economy in Cameroon:
Government in Cameroon:
Stage 1, Part B: Indicators Comparison
GNI categorization for a country is evident when looking at
their specific data indicators. More developed, higher income countries, such as Singapore, are expected to have a higher quality medical and education system.
The problem with each countries' development level and these
specific data indicators is that their interaction is cyclical. For a country to become more developed, these indicator levels need to be high. But also the indicator values won't improve if the development level is low.
Stage 2, Part A: Equality
- Race/Ethnicity
- Gender
- Family
Race/Ethnicity in Uganda:
Gender Equality in Uganda:
Family in Uganda:
Race/Ethnicity in Cameroon:
Gender Equality in Cameroon:
Family in Cameroon:
Race/Ethnicity in Singapore:
Gender Equality in Singapore:
Family in Singapore:
Race/Ethnicity in China:
Gender Equality in China:
Family in China:
Stage 2, Part A: Equality Comparison
Equality is inversely related to development belief.
As seen before in these country studies, the lower income countries, such as Cameroon, have higher rates of inequality. High income countries, like Singapore, generally have lower rates of inequality.
Stage 2, Part B: Selected Objectives
- Objective 9.6
- Objective 12.1
- Objective 12.2
- Objective 12.3
- Objective 15.2
- Objective 17.2
- Objective 19.5
- Objective 20.1
- Objective 22.1
- Objective 22.3
Stage 2, Part B: Objective Comparison
Objective 9.6: Identify patterns of crime around the world.
Stage 2, Part B: Objective Comparison
Objective 12.1: Describe the division of the world into high-, middle-, and low-income countries.
Stage 2, Part B: Objective Comparison
Objective 12.2: Discuss the patterns and explanations of poverty around the world.
Stage 2, Part B: Objective Comparison
Objective 12.3: Apply sociological theories to the topic of global inequality.
Stage 2, Part B: Objective Comparison
Objective 15.2: Describe age stratification in global context.
Stage 2, Part B: Objective Comparison
Objective 17.2: Compare monarchy and democracy as well as authoritarian and totalitarian political systems.
Stage 2, Part B: Objective Comparison
Objective 19.5: Contrast six major world religions.
Stage 2, Part B: Objective Comparison
Objective 22.1: Explain the concept of fertility, mortality, and migration, and how they affect population size.
Stage 1, Part A: Country Introduction
- GNI Categorization
- Population
- Historical Background
- Geographical Sketch
- Aspects of Material Culture
- Aspects of Non-material Culture
Stage 2, Part C: Population
Stage 2, Bonus:
I am a kinesiology major hoping someday to move overseas and help
people medically. I spent last summer working as a nursing/therapy intern at an orphanage in Uganda and, while there, I discovered how passionate I am about medicine and orphan care. So for that reason, I decided to dive deeper into "Chapter 21: Health & Medicine", and apply these selected objectives to my future career endeavors.

- Objective 21.1
- Objective 21.2
- Objective 21.4
Stage 2, Bonus:
Objective 21.1: Explain how patterns of health are shaped by society.
Technology: private broadcasting began in the 1990s; now there are
nearly 150 radio and 35 TV stations
Internet Users: 3.2 million / 16% of population
Cell Phone Subscriptions: 44 per 100 people
Architectural Styles: urban living: apartments; rural living: ranges from mud
huts to one room cement structures; often have no
electricity or running water
Traditional Clothing: imported secondhand clothing from America and Europe is
very popular; in rural areas, women must wear long skirts
and men wear pants; national wear: gomesi for women and
kanzu for men
Food/Cuisine: staples: matooke (mashed plantains), chapati (flat bread), posho
(maize flour & water), and/or rice; mostly eaten with produce:
beans, sweet potatoes, irish potatoes, avocados, groundnuts, and
various tropical fruits; meat is a rare delicacy but when
eaten, typically is beef, goat, or pork
Tourist Attractions: Murchison Falls National Park; Source of the Nile
River in Jinja; Sipi Falls; and (an attraction for
me) Good Shepherd's Fold Orphanage in
Buundo village
Location: East Asia; in between North Korea and
Total Area: 9,596,960 sq. km.
Size Comparison: slightly smaller than the USA
Climate: diverse: tropical in South; subarctic in North
Arable Land: 11.62%
Highest Point: 8,850 m
Lowest Point: -154 m
Natural Resources: coal; iron ore; petroleum;
natural gas
Technology: all media is government controlled and programming must
be approved; no independent press
Internet Users: 389 million / 46% of population
Cell Phone Subscriptions: 89 per 100 people
Architectural Styles: urban housing: apartments because of a lack of
space; rural housing: big, but usually without
electricity or running water
Traditional Clothing: clothing is very westernized; but minorities still
have ethnic wear for formal events
Food/Cuisine: staple: rice and noodles; food is a communal experience:
several dishes are placed on a rotating table and everyone
eats from the same plates
Tourist Attractions: the Great Wall of China; Tienanmen Square; the
Forbidden City; the Terracotta Warriors
Language: Mandarin, Cantonese, minority languages
Religious Beliefs: Atheist 52.2%; Folk Religion 21.9%;
Buddhist 18.2%; Christian 5.1%; Muslim 1.8%; Other 0.7%;
Hindu 0.1%; Jewish 0.1%
Norms: high respect for authority; community is of high
importance; guanxi: community obligation to help
others around you
Symbols: dragons; red: sign for blessing; giant pandas
Subculture: youth-like and lively
Location: Central Africa; between Nigeria and
Equatorial Guinea
Total Area: 475,440 sq. km
Size Comparison: slightly larger than California
Climate: varies with terrain: tropical at coast and
semiarid, hot in the north
Arable Land: 13.04%
Highest Point: 4,095 m
Lowest Point: 0 m
Natural Resources: petroleum; bauxite; iron ore;
timber; hydropower
Technology: government has light control over media
Internet Users: 749,600 / 5.7% of population
Cell Phone Subscriptions: 70 per 100 people
Architectural Styles: homes are often arranged in compounds
Traditional Clothing: very colorful, elaborate robes; women's
robes have embellishments like lace or
Food/Cuisine: staples: corn, millet, cassava, groundnuts,
potatoes, plantains, and rice; meat is a luxury;
water is the main drink
Tourist Attractions: Mt. Cameroon; Bimbia Rainforest and
Mangrove Trail; Limbe Wildlife Center
Language: English (official), French (official),
24 major African languages groups
Religious Beliefs: Christian 40%; Indigenous Beliefs
40%; Muslim 20%
Norms: group-oriented society; leadership roles are
often passed down, not given to the most
qualified; public displays of affection are not
Symbols: lions
Subculture: communal & agrarian
Geographical Sketch
Material Culture
Non-Material Culture
Language: English (official); Ganda or Luganda; other Niger-
Congo languages; Nilo-Saharan languages; Swahili; Arabic
Religious Beliefs: Roman Catholic 41.9%; Anglican 35.9%; Muslim 12.1%;
Pentecostal 4.6%; Other 3.1%; Seventh-Day Adventist 1.5%;
None 0.9%
Norms: culture is emphasized through families and clans; in rural areas,
wealth is seen as land, cattle, multiple wives, etc.; respect for
authories is shown by saying "auntie" and "uncle" or
"grandmother/grandfather" for elders
Symbols: crested crane; red, yellow, and black
Subculture: recently, with the uprising of Ugandans against Kony
& LRA, subculture has been described as violent and
Total Population: 5,567,301 people
Age Structure:
0-14: 13.4%
15-24: 17.8%
25-54: 50.3%
55-64: 10%
65+: 8.1%
Median Age: 33.8 years
Birth Rate: 8.1 births per 1,000 people
Mother's Mean Age at First Birth: 29.8 years
Fertility Rate: 0.8 children born per woman
Maternal Mortality Rate: 3 deaths per 100,000 live births
Infant Mortality Rate: 2.53 deaths per 1,000 live births
Life Expectancy:
Total Population: 84.38 years
Male: 81.86 years
Female: 87.07 years
Number of Physicians: 1.92 per 1,000 people
Births Attended by Skilled Professionals: 99.7%
Immunizations: 96% of total population
HIV/AIDS Prevalence: 0.1% of total population / 3,400 people
Obesity Rate: 7.1% of total population
Underweight Children (under 5 years): 3.3%
Access to Improved Drinking Water: 100% of total population
Public Healthcare Spending: 4.6% of GDP
Average Years of Schooling: 10.2 years
Expected Years of Schooling: 15.4 years
Total Population: 95.9%
Male: 98%
Female: 93.8%
Primary School Enrollment: N/A
Primary School Completion Rate: 98.7%
Population with some Secondary Education: 77.5%
Pupil-Teacher Ratio: 17-1
Public Education Spending: 3% of GDP
Urbanization: 100% of total population
Labor Force: 3.444 million people
Agriculture: 1.3%
Industry: 18.6%
Services: 80.1%
Unemployment Rate: 2.8%
Population Below the Poverty Line: N/A
National Debt: $1.174 trillion
Main Exports: machinery & equipment, consumer goods, pharmaceuticals,
mineral fuels
Main Imports: machinery & equipment, consumer goods, pharmaceuticals,
mineral fuels
Urbanization: 53% of total population
Labor Force: 797.6 million people
Agriculture: 33.6%
Industry: 30.3%
Services: 36.1%
Unemployment Rate: 4.1%
Population Below the Poverty Line: 6.1%
National Debt: $863.2 billion
Main Exports: electrical & other machinery, apparel, textiles
Main Imports: oil & mineral fuels, optical & medical equipment,
motor vehicles, soybeans
Urbanization: 52.1% of total population
Labor Force: 8.426 million people
Agriculture: 70%
Industry: 13%
Services: 17%
Unemployment Rate: 3%
Population Below the Poverty Line: 48%
National Debt: $3.455 billion
Main Exports: crude oil & petroleum, lumber, cocoa beans, aluminum,
coffee, cotton
Main Imports: machinery, electrical equipment, transport equipment,
fuel, food
Urbanization: 15.6% of total population
Labor Force: 17.4 million people
Agriculture: 82%
Industry: 5%
Services: 13%
Unemployment Rate: 4.1%
Population Below the Poverty Line: 24.5%
National Debt: $5.223 billion
Main Exports: coffee, fish/fish products, tea, cotton, flowers,
horticultural products, gold
Main Imports: capital equipment, vehicles, petroleum, medical supplies,
Government Type: parlimentary republic
Capital City: Singapore
Administrative Divisions: none
Head of State: President Tony Tan
Head of Government: Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong
Political Parties: People's Action Party, National
Solidarity Party, Workers' Party
Total Population: 1,355,692,576 people
Age Structure:
0-14: 17.1%
15-24: 14.7%
25-54: 47.2%
55-64: 11.3%
65+: 9.4%
Median Age: 36.7 years
Birth Rate: 12.17 births per 1,000 people
Mother's Mean Age at First Birth: 31.6 years
Fertility Rate: 1.55 children born per woman
Maternal Mortality Rate: 37 deaths per 100,000 live births
Infant Mortality Rate: 14.79 deaths per 1,000 live births
Total Population: 23,130,708 people
Age Structure:
0-14: 42.9%
15-24: 19.6%
25-54: 30.4%
55-64: 3.9%
65+: 3.4%
Median Age: 18.3 years
Birth Rate: 36.58 births per 1,000 people
Mother's Mean Age at First Birth: 19.7 years
Fertility Rate: 4.82 children born per woman
Maternal Mortality Rate: 690 deaths per 100,000 live births
Infant Mortality Rate: 55.1 deaths per 1,000 live births
Total Population: 35,918,915 people
Age Structure:
0-14: 48.7%
15-24: 21.2%
25-54: 25.7%
55-64: 2.4%
65+: 2.1%
Median Age: 15.5 years
Birth Rate: 44.17 births per 1,000 people
Mother's Mean Age at First Birth: 18.9 years
Fertility Rate: 5.97 children born per woman
Maternal Mortality Rate: 310 deaths per 100,000 live births
Infant Mortality Rate: 60.82 deaths per 1,000 live births
Most Recognized Minority Group: Malays
Singapore has a very diverse, eclectic culture because of the
diversity of people represented in its population. Many traditions for family, work environment, and life cycle are pulled from many Asian countries: China, Malaysia, Indonesia, and even India. This can also be seen in the religions represented in their population. Traditions are taken from the Muslim, Hindu, and Taoist beliefs. Inequality between races is minimal because of the high-level of development and the high influence from the West.
Most Recognized Minority Group: Zhuang
The majority of Chinese people come from the Han ethnic group.
Nationally, China recognizes 55 ethnic minority groups, but there are many more groups of people that are not recognized. Sociologists have found 20+ groups of people that are not recognized by the country as being a minority.
Most Recognized Minority Group: Equatorial Bantu
Cameroon is one of the most racially diverse countries in Africa.
Cameroonian law does not discriminate against races but some traditions run strong for the people. The ethnic group, Baka, are commonly discriminated against, often given lower, unwanted jobs. Logging companies have forced these people out of their homes as they clear the forest in the North. About 95% of the Baka people do not have national ID cards which makes it impossible for them to vote. Ethnic divisions also occur because of land arguments.
Most Recognized Minority Group: Baganda
Because Uganda is in the United Nations, they are required to
promote nondiscrimination, but no laws have been placed to that effect. There is actually no true majority in Uganda because of the extreme diversity between clans. This creates divisions because each group is only a small percentage. Most minorities are not protected under Ugandan law. This often causes a loss of access to education, clean water, and good medical care for most minorities.
Percentage of Parliament Seats Held by Women: 25.3%
Female to Male Ratio in the Work Force: 0.79-1
Female to Male Ratio in Secondary Education: 0.95-1
In Singapore, baby boys are valued higher than baby girls because of the desire for the boy to carry on the family name and take care of the family later on in life. An in-vitro fertilization center in Singapore reported that 90% of their customers ask for a boy. But even with this societal emphasis for boys, the economy is bringing women into the discussion. With Singapore’s rapid industrialization, they had to bring more women into the work force because of the strong demand for labor. In 1957, about 22% of women ages 15-64 were employed and by 1999, this percentage had risen to 55%. In 1999, the majority of women in the workforce were employed in the sales/service field (40%), with the category “industrial” following right behind at 26%. Even though this demand helped to bring equality into the workforce, society still lags behind. Women are now expected to be contributing members to the workforce, as well as nurturing their families at home.
Percentage of Parliament Seats Held by Women: 23.4%
Female to Male Ratio in the Work Force: 0.84-1
Female to Male Ratio in Secondary Education: No Data Available
Female/Male Ratio in Post-Secondary Education: 1.13-1
Percentage of Parliament Seats Held by Women: 31.1%
Female to Male Ratio in the Work Force: 0.66-1
Female to Male Ratio in Secondary Education: 0.91-1
Percentage of Parliament Seats Held by Women: 35%
Female to Male Ratio in the Work Force: 0.96-1
Female to Male Ratio in Secondary Education: 0.89-1
"Firsts" for Women In Singapore:
"Firsts" for Women In China:
"Firsts" for Women In Cameroon:
"Firsts" for Women In Uganda:
Traditional Family Structure:
- generally small with one or two children
- more women are pursuing careers and higher education so the
government has placed incentives to couples that get married at a younger age
- three generations often live together in the same house: children,
parents, and grandparents

Alternate Family Forms:
- Malays living in Singapore commonly have bigger families with at
least three children
Traditional Family Structure:
- because of the group-focus of society, family is more important
than the individual
- most families only have one child because of the one child policy;
loophole: urban families can have more than one child if one of the parents was an only child
- the grandfather/father has the final say in the family; if the
grandfather has died, the grandmother assumes this role

Alternate Family Forms:
- because of strict government control, alternate family forms do not really exist
Traditional Family Structure:
- generally large, consisting of a man, 1+ wives, and many
children (in rural areas = 10+ children)
- as a man marries, he adds another house to his compound,
further fostering the country's group mentality
- there is not much distinction between the immediate
family and the extended family
- seniority rules in the family; the oldest members choose
land, food, and resources first
Traditional Family Structure:
- common structure is changing because of the influence from outside cultures
- family ties are much stronger for rural families than urban families
- in rural areas, families are large; consisting of 1 man, multiple wives, with an average of 7 children per wife
- in urban areas, families are much smaller with an average of 4 children
- families often rely on the help of extended family; for example, grandparents raising children or uncles paying school fees
- at the age of 15, girls go to live with a paternal aunt. it becomes her job to raise and train this girl. she will, also, often arrange a marriage for her.
- boys will also, at the age of 15, go to live with a maternal uncle.

Alternate Family Forms:
- disease and crime has changed the way some families are structured; often the eldest child assumes a parental role if neglected or parents die of disease (i.e. AIDS)
Life Expectancy:
Total Population: 75.15 years
Male: 73.09 years
Female: 77.43 years
Number of Physicians: 1.46 per 1,000 people
Births Attended by Skilled Professionals: 99.8%
Immunizations: 99% of total population
HIV/AIDS Prevalence: 0.1% of total population / 780,000 people
Obesity: 5.7% of total population
Underweight Children (under 5 years): 3.4%
Access to Improved Drinking Water: 91.9% of total population
Public Healthcare Spending: 5.2% of GDP
Life Expectancy:
Total Population: 57.35 years
Male: 56.09 years
Female: 58.65 years
Number of Physicians: 0.08 per 1,000 people
Births Attended by Skilled Professionals: 63.6%
Immunizations: 85% of total population
HIV/AIDS Prevalence: 4.5% of total population / 600,500 people
Obesity: 10.3% of total population
Underweight Children (under 5 years): 15.1%
Access to Improved Drinking Water: 74.1% of total population
Public Healthcare Spending: 5.2% of GDP
Life Expectancy:
Total Population: 54.46 years
Male: 53.1 years
Female: 55.86 years
Number of Physicians: 0.12 per 1,000 people
Births Attended by Skilled Professionals: 57.4%
Immunizations: 78% of total population
HIV/AIDS Prevalence: 7.2% of total population / 1,549,200 people
Obesity: 4.3% of total population
Underweight Children (under 5 years): 14.1%
Access to Improved Drinking Water: 74.8% of total population
Public Healthcare Spending: 9.5% of GDP
Average Years of Schooling: 7.5 years
Expected Years of Schooling: 12.9 years
Total Population: 95.1%
Male: 97.5%
Female: 92.7%
Primary School Enrollment: N/A
Primary School Completion Rate: N/A
Population with some Secondary Education: 65.3%
Pupil-Teacher Ratio: 17-1
Public Education Spending: N/A
Average Years of Schooling: 5.91 years
Expected Years of Schooling: 10.4 years
Total Population: 71.3%
Male: 78.3%
Female: 64.8%
Primary School Enrollment: 92%
Primary School Completion Rate: 73%
Population with some Secondary Education: 27.9%
Pupil-Teacher Ratio: 46-1
Public Education Spending: 3.2% of GDP
Average Years of Schooling: 5.36 years
Expected Years of Schooling: 10.8 years
Total Population: 73.2%
Male: 82.6%
Female: 64.6%
Primary School Enrollment: 91%
Primary School Completion Rate: 53%
Population with some Secondary Education: 28.8%
Pupil-Teacher Ratio: 48-1
Public Education Spending: 3.3% of GDP
Government Type: communist state
Capital City: Beijing
Administrative Divisions: 23 provinces, 5 autonomous
regions (including Mongolia & Tibet), & 4 municipalities (including Beijing & Shanghai)
Head of State: President Xi Jinping
Head of Government: Premier Li Keqiang
Political Parties: Chinese Communist Party
Government Type: republic; multi-party president
Capital City: Yaounde
Administrative Divisions: 10 regions
Head of State: President Paul Biya
Head of Government: Prime Minister Philemon Yang
Political Parties: the Cameroon People's Democratic
Movement, the Social Democratic Front
Government Type: republic
Capital City: Kampala
Administrative Divisions: 111 districts & 1 capital city
Head of State: President Yoweri Museveni
Head of Government: President Yoweri Museveni
Political Parties: National Resistance Movement, Forum
for Democratic Change
Pop. Under 15: Pop. Over 65: Pop. Density: Pop. Growth Rate Net Migration Rate:
Total Population:
Total Population:
Total Population:
Total Population:
0.55 million people
122.98 million people
0.72 million people
0.91 million people
7,618 people per
sq. km
141.9 people per
sq. km
44 people per
sq. km
152 people per
sq. km
14.55 migrants per
1000 people
-0.32 migrants per
1000 people
-0.15 migrants per
1000 people
-0.76 migrants per
1000 people
1919 - Lee Choo Neo, First Woman to Practice as a Medical Doctor
1949 - Phyllis Eu Cheng Li, First Woman Elected to Public Office
1952 - Tang Pui Wah, First Female Olympian
1966 - Jenny Lau Buong Bee, First Female Judge
1979 - Agnes Fong Sock Har, First Female Commanding Officer in the Singapore
Armed Forces
1986 - Tan Sau Fun, First and Only Female Professor of Chemistry at the
University Level
1999 - Lim Soo Hoon, First Woman Permanent Secretary at the Ministry of
Community Development
2005 - Karen Tan Puay Kiow, First Woman Colonel in the Singapore Armed Forces
2008 - Yip Pin Xiu, First Ever and Female Olympic-Level Gold Medal Winner
2009 - Lim Hwee Hua, First Woman Cabinet Member
(1.27% of total population)
(13.3% of total population)
(19% of total population)
- the Shang dynasty is the first known dynasty from 1700-1046 BC
- the "Golden Age" in the Han dynasty from 206 BC-220 AD
- the Boxer Rebellion in the North begins to take down the last (Qing) dynasty in 1901
- Japan invades and controls most of China during WWII from 1931-1945
- Mao Zedong names himself Chairman of the Communist Party in 1934
- on Oct 1, 1949, Chairman Mao leads the Communist Party to defeat the
Nationalist Party after 20+ years of civil war; officially is named the People's Republic of China
- Chairman Mao begins "10 Year Plan": a cultural revolution that resulted in
massive genocide from 1966-1976
- in 1972, Pres. Nixon becomes the first USA president to visit the new Communist China
- Chairman Mao dies in 1976; his immediate leaders are charged with war crime
- China introduces the one-child policy in 1979
- 1 million students, in 1989, have a pro-democracy demonstration in Tiananmen
Square; troops open fire on them killing 200
- in 2001, China joins the World Trade Organization
- the Summer Olympics are held in Beijing in 2008
- China surpasses Japan as the second largest economy in 2010
Gender Roles:
- in the past, women stayed at home to support the family
- today, women are expected to uphold these roles and contribute to the work force
- women often work to relieve financial burden from their husbands
Violence Against Women:
- sex trafficking is increasing in China rapidly
- with the implementation of the one-child policy, many women have been forced to have abortions; forced female sterilization is also commonplace
- the rural practice of foot binding has also been viewed as violence
- 1 in 4 Chinese women will experience domestic violence at some point in their lives
202 BC - Lu Zhi, First Woman to become "Empress of China"
1902 - Foot Binding practice is abolished
1920 - First Female students are admitted to Peking University
1928 - Wu Yi-Fang, First Woman to hold a Doctorate Degree; also in the same
year, became the first Female College President
1949 - Soong Ching-ling, First Female Vice Chairman of the Central People's Govt
1949 - Women are given the right to vote
1968 - Soong Ching-ling, First Female Head of State
2004 - Wu Yi, First Female Vice Premier of the Communist Party
Gender Roles:
- in rural/traditional areas:
- men provide financially
- women are the supporting role
- sometimes with polygamy
- in urban living:
- men often help with childcare;
are involved in their children's lives
- usually monogamous
Violence Against Women:
- no reliable data exists on the extent of this
problem; but it is obvious that violence against women is widespread in Cameroon
- wife beating is justified under custom and law
- no domestic abuse laws are in place
- female genital mutilation is found in some parts
of the country
- the government recognizes that FGM is bad but
has not taken the steps to outlaw it
1969 - Therese Kuoh Moukouri, First Woman to publish a novel
1982 - Chantal Biya, First "First Lady" in Cameroon
2007 - Caroline Bi Bongwa, First Female Mayor
2012 - Christine Njeuma, First Female Commercial Airline Pilot
(16.9% of total population)
1962 - Women are given the right to vote
1974 - Elizabeth Bagaya, First Woman to be admitted to the English Bar
1986-1987 - Alice Auma, Led the rebellion of the Acholi people against the govt.
2010 - Edigold Monday, First Female Bank Manager
2012 - Proscovia Oromait, Youngest Female Elected Parliament Member (20 yrs)
Gender Roles:
- man: head of the house and the financial provider; he protects, buys clothes, pays school fees, etc.
-woman: caretaker; she does housework and looks after her children
- in rural areas, polygamy is commonplace
- women & men have equal rights under law but custom limits women
Violence Against Women:
- men still will pay a "bride price" to obtain a wife
- 50+% of Ugandans believe that wife beating is acceptable if she burns the food, refuses sex, etc.
- women have no protection under the law; if a couple divorces, the man will retain everything, even custody of the children, leaving her with nothing
There are many types of crime: crimes against the person, crimes against property,
and victimless crimes. There are also several demographics that affect how much crime is present in a society: age, gender, social class, and race.

Singapore - Crime rates here are some of the lowest in the world. Violent crime, such as murder, rape, and theft, are virtually nonexistent. Economic crime, such as embezzlement, is on the rise.
China - Because of the severity of punishment for crime, rates are lower. But violent crime is still an issue. Trafficking of persons and products is prevalent. Corruption in the government also leads to crimes like bribery.
Cameroon - There is not a lot of data about this issue but crime is prevalent here. Between terrorism and acts of violent crime, this area is unstable and crazy.
Uganda - Here, the crime index is 65.83 and the safety index is 34.17, so the majority of the time, you should feel unsafe. Corruption and bribery are the biggest concerns/source of crime.
The division of the world by income stems from the standard of living from the
locals. The people with the highest standard of living will live in a high income society and vice versa. Most of the highest income countries are in North America & Europe while the lowest income countries most come from Africa. High income countries typically have a per capita income of $13,000-45,000+ annually and these countries cover 47% of the Earth's land area. Middle income countries generally have a per capita income of $2,500-12,500 annually and low income countries have a per capita income of less than $2,500 annually. SIngapore is considered a high income country; China is a upper-middle income country; Cameroon is a lower-middle income country; Uganda is a lower income country.
relative poverty - some people lack resources that are taken for granted by others
absolute poverty - life-threatening poverty

Poverty often leads to other societal problems. For instance, poverty generates a lot
of slavery because the people don't know where else to turn. Some forms of slavery are for hard labor or sex. There are several explanations for the severity of global poverty, such as technology, population growth, cultural patterns, and gender inequality.
Modernization Theory: a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between nations
- basically says that affluence is achieved through advanced technology
Walt Rostow made 4 Stages for this Development:
1. Traditional Stage: People's lives are built around families and local communities.
2. Take-Off Stage: People produce goods, not only for their use, but for a market.
3. Drive to Technological Maturity: Economic growth and higher living standards are goals; schooling is widely
available; women's social standing improves
4. High Mass Consumption: Advanced technology fuels mass production and mass consumption.
Rapid economic development, in countries like Singapore, shows that affluence is within reach of most nations.

Dependency Theory: a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones
- basically says that colonialism created a massive divide between the rich and the poor; this process, capitalism, still happens today
Immanuel Wallerstein made 3 categories of nations in this economy:
1. Core: the world's highest income countries
2. Semiperiphery: the world's middle income countries, with ties to core nations
3. Periphery: the lowest income countries, which provide low-cost labor and industrial products
age stratification - the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege among people at different stages of the life course

Singapore - grandparents are often involved in childcare; are cared for by their children
China - elders are HIGHLY respected; even after death, ancestors are worshiped and called
upon for advice; the entire family takes orders from the grandfather
Cameroon - seniority is supreme; the oldest family members choose from the family resources
first; elders also are viewed as a source of wisdom and are often involved in traditional rituals and rites.
Uganda - elders are valued for their wisdom; typically older parents are cared for by their
eldest son
monarchy - a political system in which a single family rules from generation to generation;
common in agrarian societies and seen in Biblical times, present-day Britain

democracy - a political system that gives power to the people as a whole; common in modern
societies; leadership is elected

authoritarian - a political system that denies the people participation in government;
i.e. military control

totalitarian - a highly centralized political system that extensively regulates people's lives;
allow no organized opposition and they operate on civilian fear
The six major world religions are Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism. 3/4 of humanity falls into one of these religious groups. Above 50% of Cameroon and Uganda claim to be Christian. Singapore is primarily Buddhist or Atheist.
fertility - the number of live births in a given year for every 1,000 people in the population
mortality - the incidence of death in a country's population for every 1,000 people in the pop.
migration - the number of people moving in and out of the country's borders in a given year
Population growth is obviously affected by these stated factors. In rich countries,
population growth happens from immigration. In poorer countries, population growth is more likely to happen by natural means.
Health is a social issue because our well being depends on a society's level of technology
and its distribution of resources. The culture is constantly changing which will bring about further medical development. Social inequality will affect the public health.
Objective 21.2: Contrast patterns of health in low-, and high-income countries.
Objective 21.4: Compare the medical systems in nations around the world.
Health care systems in low income countries are often characterized as inadequate. The hospitals lack the
necessary materials and equipment to treat their patients. The patients lack the necessary education to know when they need proper care. So society as a whole suffers. Life expectancy is low in these countries.
The health care system in higher income countries is cleaner and better equipped to handle cases. The
equipment their doctors use is typically up to speed and they are well educated on how to handle the equipment.
China uses a holistic approach to modern medicine. This happens because since the government controls medical
care, in China, the government runs into problems with payment. So many rural families will turn to natural, holistic professionals.
Objective 20.1: Compare schooling in high-, middle-, and low-income societies.
The level of education is linked directly to level of economic development. The
lower the educational experience, the less likely completion will occur and the economy will suffer. Low income countries have higher pupil-teacher ratios and lower completion rates. Education is the way we transmit knowledge and skills to a younger generations, as well as convey cultural norms and values. Please refer to the slides on education for each countries' demographics and statistics on education.
Objective 22.3: Summarize patterns of urbanization around the world.
Patterns of Urbanization (happened in 3 revolutions)
#1: began with the appearance of cities almost 10,000 years ago
#2: began around 1750 as the Industrial Revolution in Europe was beginning
#3: is now happening in poorer countries
Baba House
salwar kabeez
the Terracotta Warriors
traditional minority dress
the Great Wall of China
Bimbia Rainforest
Mt. Cameroon
traditional Cameroonian robes
the Source of the Nile River in Jinja
traditional women's robes: gomesi
traditional men's wear: kanzu
me with the toddlers at GSF Orphanage
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