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Nadin Selman

on 29 April 2016

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Transcript of Obesity


Nadin Selman, Raif Habeeb, Sylvana Lee, Angus Currie and Carlos Viana
The stress
Restrictive surgeries
Malabsorptive/restrictive surgeries
complications like malnutrition
What is obesity?
Obesity is defined as the medical condition measured by ‘Body Mass Index’

In 2007-08, around 37% of young adults aged
18-24 years were overweight or obese (abs.com.au 2008)

The junk food addiction
Addictive behavior compared with the likes of nicotine, narcotics and opiates

Substance Use Disorders (SUD’s)

Same addictive qualities when identitfying depedance and substance abuse
Fresh food

Processed Foods
Frozen Foods
Fast food
Genetically Modified Organism's (GMO's) - Food
What causes it?
- Genetics
- Stress
- Imbalance of energy intake vs energy output
- lifestyle

More specifically sugar intake....

Normal BMI:
- 18.5-24.9 is relatively normal
- <18.5, underweight
- >22.9 overweight
Why is it so good?
Our new 'lifestyle' plays a role:

Junk food is a major contributor
Easily accessible
However, they contain:
- how levels of fats and oils
Reinforce a seeking and incentive based behaviour for a “reward”

Activation of the Dopamine-Reward Pathway System

Dopamine a neurotransmitters, bind to receptors in the meso-limbic porting

Brain stimulates rewarding feelings and can thus become addictive.
Brain wire?
Sugar Sweetened Beverages are the highest source of added sugar in the typical diet

Links to obesity are so prevalent:
- blanket bans imposed on soft drinks at schools and
- even proposed bans in Children's Hospitals.

A vicious substances that we are all exposed to.

So, how bad?
A walk down memory lane...

What is obesity?
Sugar Addiction
What can be done?

Time management
Medical attention
Important to maintain healthy diet and regular exercise
Leptin resistance
No known cure
Experiment works with lab mice
Further research
Lorcaserin (Belviq)
Phentermine-topiramate (Qsymia)
Other appetite supressants
only used as adjunts to diet and excerise
Reduce the number of calories (energy IN)
Increase their physical activity (energy OUT)

Weight loss of 1-2 kg per week, daily intake should be reduced by 500 to 750 calories

• Eating plans that contain 1,200–1,500 calories each day will help most women lose weight

•Eating plans that contain 1,500–1,800 calories each day are suitable for men and for women who weigh more or who exercise regularly

Obesity treatment:

300 minutes of moderate-intensity activity each week

For a healthy lifestyle:

150 to 300 minutes (2 ½ to 5 hours) a week of moderate-intensity activity such as brisk walking.
Physical Activity
•Emphasizes vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat dairy products

• Includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts

• Limits saturated and trans fats, sodium, and added sugars

• Controls portion sizes

Diet Continued..
(Hone-Blanchett. 2014).
(Avena 2008).
(Eneli et al 2014)
Tom McKay, 2014
John Rodgers. R, 2012
Clement. K, 1998
(Brunner EJ, 2007)
Avena, N. M., Rada, P. & Hoebel, B. G. (2008) Evidence of Sugar Addiction: Behavioural and Neurochemical Effects of Intermittent, Excessive Sugar Intake. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 32: 20-23
Blum, K., Thanos, P. K. & Gold, M. S. (2014) Dopamine and Glucose, Obesity and Reward Deficiency Syndrome. Frontiers in Psychology. 5: 1-11
Eneli, I. U., Oza-Frank, R., Grover, K., Miller, R. & Kelleher, K. (2014) Instituting a Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Ban: Experience From a Children’s Hospital. American Journal of Public Health. 104: 1822-1826
Guixeres, J, Redon, P, Saiz, J, Álvarez, J, Torró, M, Cantero, L, & Lurbe, E 2014, 'Cardiovascular fitness in youth; association with obesity and metabolic abnormalities', Nutricion Hospitalaria, 29, 6, pp. 1290-1297, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 30 October 2014.
Hone-Blanchet, A. & Fecteau, S. (2014) Overlap of Food Addiction and Substance Abuse Disorders Definitions: Analysis of Animal and Human Studies. Neuropharmacology. 85: 81-90
John Rodgers. R. (September, 2012) anti-obesity drugs: past, present and future, National Institute of Health, pg 621-626
Johnson RJ, et al (2007). ’Potential role of sugar (fructose) in the epidemic of hypertension, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease’. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 4. 31.
Ladabaum, U, Mannalithara, A, Myer, P, & Singh, G 2014, 'Obesity, Abdominal Obesity, Physical Activity, and Caloric Intake in US
Adults: 1988 to 2010', American Journal Of Medicine, 127, 8, pp. 717-727.e12, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 30 October 2014.
McKay, M, 2014, ‘What Happens to Your Brain on Sugar, Explained by Science’. News.Mic, 21 April.
Ogden CL, Carroll MD. (2010) Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity among adults: United States, trends 1960–1962 through 2007–2008. NCHS Health E-Stat. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.

Ogden CL, 2010.
Ogden CL, 2010.
Ogden CL, 2010.
Ogden CL, 2010.
Ogden CL, 2010.
Guyenet, S. 2012

Catalyst of many underlying illnesses
- Type 2 Diabetes
- Cardiovascular disease
- Cancer
- and more...
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