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Mexico !

By: Lasiah, Kenzi, Kirsten, Kirim

lasiah hammonds

on 28 October 2013

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Transcript of Mexico !

By :Lasiah, Kenzie, Kirsten, Kirim
The natives were so bold and warlike as to drive off the Spaniards, killing many of them, and mortally wounding Cordova. In the following year, Juan de Grijalva explored a portion of the southern coast of Mexico, and obtained much treasure by traffic with the inhabitants. Velasquez, governor of Cuba, who had fitted out this expedition, now determined to attempt the conquest of the wealthy country that had been discovered, and prepared an expedition of ten vessels, manned by six hundred and seventeen men, which he placed under the command of Hernando Cortes who had already shown much military ability. He landed in Mexico on March 4, 1519, where his ships, his horses, and his artillery filled the natives with wonder and terror and caused them to regard the Spaniards as divine beings. After several victories over the natives, who were repulsed with great slaughter Cortes founded the city of Vera Cruz, burned his vessels to cut off all thought of retreat from the minds of his soldiers, and commenced his march towards towards the Mexican capital.
• He was opposed by the people of Tlascala, enemies of the Aztecs, but he conquered this warlike republic and converted its inhabitants into useful auxiliaries. In the city of Cholula, where an ambuscade had been laid for him, he defeated his enemies with terrible slaughter. He finally reached the city of Mexico, which was situated on an island in a lake and connected by causeways with the mainland. Here he took Montezuma, the Aztec emperor, prisoner, and converted one of his palaces into a fortress. Velasquez had, meanwhile, sent an expedition under Narvaez to deprive Cortes of his command. Leaving two hundred men in the city, he marched against Narvaez, defeated him, and enlisted his men under his own banner.
• During his absence the Mexicans attacked the Spanish garrison. Their attacks were continued after the return of Cortes with such fury that Montezuma was mortally wounded by his own subjects, and many of the Spaniards were slain.
• Mexican assaults that the invaders found themselves in imminent peril of being entirely destroyed, and their leader was forced to order a retreat.

The Spanish Conquest: Hernan Cortes
a pre-Columbian Mesoamerican city located in the Basin of Mexico. Today known as the site of many of the most architecturally significant Mesoamerican pyramids built in the pre-Columbian Americas. Apart from the pyramids, Teotihuacan is also anthropologically significant for its complex, multi-family residential compounds, the Avenue of the Dead, and the small portion of its vibrant murals that have been well-preserved. Additionally, Teotihuacan produced a thin orange pottery style that spread through Mesoamerica.[2]
• The city is thought to have been established around 100 BC.
• Although it is a subject of debate whether Teotihuacan was the center of a state empire, its influence throughout Mesoamerica is well documented; evidence of Teotihuacano presence can be seen at numerous sites in Veracruz and the Maya region. The Aztecs may have been influenced by this city.

The Teotihuacan
• The Maya is a Mesoamerican civilization known for fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as its art, architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems. Initially established the Pre-Classic period (c. 2000 BC to AD 250) and continued throughout the Post-Classic period until the arrival of the Spanish.
• The Maya civilization shares many features with other Mesoamerican civilizations due to the high degree of interaction and cultural diffusion that characterized the region. Advances such as writing, epigraphy, and the calendar did not originate with the Maya; however, their civilization fully developed them. The many outside influences found in Maya art and architecture are thought to have resulted from trade and cultural exchange rather than direct external conquest.
• The Maya peoples survived the Classic period collapse and the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores and sixteenth-century Spanish colonization of the Americas. Millions of people speak Mayan languages today.

The Mayan
• The Olmec were the first major civilization in Mexico. They lived in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico.
• The Olmec flourished during Mesoamerica's Formative period, dating roughly from as early as 1500 BCE to about 400 BCE. They were the first Mesoamerican civilization and laid many of the foundations for the civilizations that followed.
• The most familiar aspect of the Olmecs is their artwork.. The Olmec civilization was first defined through artifacts which collectors purchased on the pre-Columbian art market in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Olmec artworks are considered among ancient America's most striking.

The Olmec
The War Independence
• The Mexican War of Independence (1810–1821) was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and the Spanish colonial authorities. This battle started on September 16 1810. The movement, which became known as the Mexican War of Independence, was led by Mexican-born Spaniards, Mestizos and Amerindians who sought independence from Spain. It started as an idealistic peasants' rebellion against their colonial masters, but ended as an unlikely alliance between Mexican ex-royalists and Mexican guerrilla insurgents.

The Toltec
The Toltec culture is a culture that dominated a state centered in Tula, in the early post-classic period of Mesoamerican chronology. The later Aztec culture saw the Toltecs as their intellectual and cultural predecessors. Among modern scholars it is a matter of debate whether the Aztec narratives of Toltec history should be given credence as descriptions of actual historical events. While all scholars acknowledge that there is a large mythological part of the narrative, some maintain that by using a critical comparative method some level of historicity can be salvaged from the sources. Others maintain that continued analysis of the narratives as sources of actual history is futile and hinders access to actual knowledge of the culture of Tula, Hidalgo. Other controversies relating to the Toltecs include how best to understand the reasons behind the perceived similarities in architecture and iconography between the archaeological site of Tula and the Mayan site of Chichén Itzá. No consensus has yet emerged about the degree or direction of influence between these two sites.
• The Aztec Empire was peopled by a group that was once nomadic, the Mexicas. Their chroniclers told them that after their long journey from Aztlán, they found themselves to be outcasts, until they found the sign sent to them by their god Huitzilopochtli, and began to build their city. And so the Mexica peoples continued, and the Aztec Empire began.

The city of Tenochitlan was soon to become one of the largest cities in the world. The power of the Mexican peoples became more consolidated, and they began to form alliances. Their military power grew as well, and they began to conquer peoples in the surrounding areas.

At the height of its power, the Aztec Empire was ruled with fear. In 1519, a clash of cultures was to take place, unlike anything before it. Although there was much tragedy in both the Spanish and Aztec empires before this, the meeting of the two civilizations was disastrous. In a few short years, the culture and structure of one of historys greatest empires would have virtually vanished.

Major Cities
• Mexico City is Mexico's capital and largest city and one of the world's major cities. See the article on Mexico City.
• Guadalajara, Mexico's second largest city and the capital of Jalisco state, is a major industrial and commercial city, a popular tourist center, and a hub of transportation.
• Monterrey, the capital of Nuevo León state, is an important industrial center and the chief city of northern Mexico.
• Puebla, the capital of Puebla state, once known primarily for its textiles, now produces automobiles, petrochemicals, and iron and steel. The city is also famed for its many churches.

León is an industrial city of central Mexico and the heart of the country's shoe production.
• . Acapulco, a famed resort city, is situated on the Pacific coast of southern Mexico. Veracruz is Mexico's chief port on the Gulf of Mexico.

• Mexico is a large country and the climate of Mexico varies substantially depending on the region of the country that you are visiting.
• The climate in the desert regions are typically very hot during the day and cool at nights. The desert regions can often be windy as well.
• In general, Mexico City enjoys spring weather year-round, with the evenings somewhat cooler, especially in winter. June to September is the rainy season, which usually includes short and heavy showers in the afternoons.

*Bordering the Gulf of Mexico are lowlands characterized by hotter, more humid climate than the higher elevations of the country. The climate of the tropical beaches of Mexico varies between the dry and rainy seasons.

Major Mountain Ranges

• You can find most of the mountains in Mexico in one of two regions. The highest mountain peaks are located in the state of Puebla. The main mountain range in Mexico--the Sierra Madre Mountains--runs from the northwest to the southeast portion. The mountains start near the California border and continue into Guatemala.
• The largest mountain in Mexico is El Pixo de Orizaba. This mountain, which was formerly a volcano, is among the highest mountains in North America. Only Denali and Mount Logan are taller. The summit of El Pixo de Orizaba is approximately 18,900 feet above sea level--this is about three and a half miles. If you plan to climb this mountain, you may want to climb sometime between November and March, because it is the dry season in the area. While there is a good chance of running into moisture at the top of the mountain in April and May, it is still possible to climb the mountain during these months.

• Mexico's nearly 28,000 miles of warm, subtropical coastline feature gently waving palm trees, white sand beaches, rocky cliffs and tranquil blue-green waters, making it a small wonder that the country is such a popular destination. Mexico's coast is divided into four main sections, each of which offers a different experience for visitors
• Several different languages are spoken in Mexico, with a large majority of the population speaking in Spanish while some Mexicans still only speak their native indigenous language. The government of Mexico recognizes 68 distinct indigenous Amerindian languages as national languages in addition to Spanish. According to the Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples (CDI) and National Institute of Indigenous Languages, while 10–14% of the population identifies as belonging to an indigenous group, only around 6% speak an indigenous language. There are other languages not native to Mexico that are spoken in the country, with the most common being the English language. Nevertheless, most Mexicans are monolingual Spanish-speakers.
• The culture of Mexico has changed rapidly during the 19th and 20th centuries. In many ways, contemporary life in its cities has become similar to that in neighboring United States and Europe. Most Mexican villagers follow the older way of life more than the city people do.
• Diego Rivera (December 8, 1886 – November 24, 1957) was a prominent Mexican painter. His large wall works in fresco helped establish the Mexican Mural Movement in Mexican art.
• Roberto Montenegro Nervo was a painter, muralist and illustrator, who was one of the first to be involved in the Mexican muralism movement after the Mexican Revolution. His most important mural work was done at the former San Pedro and San Pablo monastery.
• Frida Kahlo de Rivera was a Mexican painter, born in Coyoacán, who is best known for her self-portraits.

• Throughout the years, Mexicans in the US have been stereotyped. Some common stereotypes consist of: laziness, being illegal immigrants, unable to speak the English language, drunks, gang members, and others. These stereotypes have been channeled through all different avenues of the media; from the internet, movies, television, and to the radio, etc.

• Tourism in Mexico is a very large industry. Mexico has been traditionally among the most visited countries in the world according to the World Tourism Organization. The most notable attractions are the Meso-American ruins, cultural festivals, colonial cities, nature reserves and the beach resorts. The nation's temperate climate and unique culture make Mexico an attractive destination. The peak tourism seasons in the country are during December and the mid-Summer. Many of the beach resort sites become popular destinations for college students from the United States.
• The name Pyramid of the Sun comes from the Aztecs, who visited the city of Teotihuacan centuries after it was abandoned; the name given to the pyramid by the Teotihuacanos is unknown.
• The Pyramid of the Sun is the largest building in Teotihuacan and one of the largest in Mesoamerica

• The economy of Mexico is the 13th largest in the world. Mexico was not significantly influenced by the recent 2002 South American crisis, and maintained low rates of growth after a brief period of stagnation in 2001. However, Mexico was one of the Latin American nations most affected by the 2008 recession with its Gross Domestic Product contracting by more than 6%. Moody's and Fitch IBCA issued investment-grade ratings for Mexico's sovereign debt. Some of the government's challenges include the upgrade of infrastructure, the modernization of the tax system and labor laws, and the reduction of income inequality.
• Mexico's labor force is 78 million. The OECD and WTO both rank Mexican workers as the hardest working in the world in terms of the amount of hours worked yearly, although profitability per man-hour remains low.

Politics in Mexico
• The Politics of Mexico take place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic. There government is based on a congressional system, so the president of Mexico is the head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. The federal government represents the United Mexican States and is divided into three branches: executive, legislative and judicial, as established by the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States.
• During this period, Mexico was part of Viceroyalty of New Spain, which included Cuba, Puerto Rico, Central America, Costa Rica, the southwestern United States including Florida, and the Philippines. The Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés had conquered the great empire of the Aztecs and established New Spain. During the 16th century Spain focused its energies on areas with dense populations that had produced Pre-Columbian civilizations, since these areas could provide the settlers with a disciplined labor force and a larger population.
• Territories populated by nomadic peoples were harder to conquer. They made no effort to settle the United States until the end of 16th century.
• Colonial law with Spanish roots creating a balance between local jurisdiction (the Cabildos) and the Crown's, where upper administrative offices were closed to the natives, even those of Spanish blood. Administration was based on the racial separation of the population between the Republics of Spaniards, Indians and Mestizos. The population of New Spain was divided into four main groups, or classes. The group a person belonged to was determined by: racial background and birth place. The most powerful group was the Spaniards, people born in Spain and sent across the Atlantic to rule the colony. Only Spaniards could hold high-level jobs in the colonial government
• The third group, the mestizos, had a much lower position in colonial society. The word mestizo means "mixed." A person was a mestizo if some of his ancestors were Spanish and some were Indians. The mestizos were looked down upon by the Spaniards and the creoles, who held the racist belief that people of pure European background were superior to everyone else.
• The poorest, most oppressed group in New Spain was the Indians, the original people of the land. The other groups constantly mistreated and took advantage of them. Indians were forced to work as laborers on the ranches and farms of the Spaniards and creoles.
• In addition to the four main groups, there were also some black Africans in colonial Mexico. These black Africans were imported as laborers and shared the low status of the Indians. They made up about 4 to 5 percent of the population.
• From an economic point of view, New Spain was administered principally for the benefit of the Empire and its military and defensive efforts (Mexico provided more than half of the Empire taxes and supported the administration of all North and Central America). Competition with the metropolis was discouraged, and for instance the cultivation of grapes and olives, introduced by Cortez himself, was banned out of fear that these crops would compete with Spain's.
• In order to protect the country from the attacks of English, French and Dutch pirates, as well as the Crown's revenue, only two ports were open to foreign trade. The pirates attacked several cities.

• Mexico produced important cultural achievements during the colonial period, like the literature of Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz and Ruiz de Alarcón, as well as cathedrals, civil monuments, forts and colonial cities.
• By the early 1800s many native-born Mexicans were beginning to think that Mexico should become independent of Spain. The man who finally touched off the revolt against Spain was the Catholic priest Father Miguel Hidalgo. He is remembered today as the Father of Mexican Independence.

• The Mexican War of Independence (1810–1821) was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and the Spanish colonial authorities. This battle started on September 16 1810. The movement, which became known as the Mexican War of Independence, was led by Mexican-born Spaniards, Mestizos and Amerindians who sought independence from Spain. It started as an idealistic peasants' rebellion against their colonial masters, but ended as an unlikely alliance between Mexican ex-royalists and Mexican guerrilla insurgents.
• The Mexican–American War was an armed conflict between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848 in the wake of the 1845 U.S. annexation of Texas, which Mexico considered part of its territory.
• Combat operations lasted a year and a half, from spring 1846 to fall 1847. American forces quickly took over New Mexico and California, then invaded parts of Northeastern Mexico and Northwest Mexico; meanwhile, the Pacific Squadron conducted a blockade, and took control of several garrisons on the Pacific coast further south in Baja California. Another American army captured Mexico City, and the war ended in victory for the U.S.
• The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified the major consequence of the war: the forced Mexican Cession of the territories of Alta California and New Mexico to the U.S. in exchange for $15 million. In addition, the United States assumed $3.25 million of debt owed by the Mexican government to U.S. citizens. Mexico accepted the loss of Texas and thereafter cited the Rio Grande as its national border.

The Mexican revolution; pancho (1910-1940)
• In 1906 revolutionaries attempted to overthrow the Diaz regime by organizing strikes at the Cananea copper mine and at the Rio Blanco textile mills. But those efforts failed.
• Then Francisco Madero, a wealthy landowner and industrialist, but part of a group which had been excluded from power by the Diaz dictatorship, attempted to run for president. Diaz had him jailed. Escaping from Mexico to the U.S., Madero then launched the revolution on November 10, 1910 with the slogan "effective suffrage and no re-election." November 10 is still celebrated as a national holiday.
• Madero's revolution calling for democracy also attracted support of small ranchers and poor peasants who were fighting not only for democracy, but also for land. Pancho Villa in the state of Chihuahua in the north organized an army of small ranchers, railroad workers and miners, and other middle class and working class people. Emiliano Zapata in the state of Morelos in the south organized the poor peasants who demanded that the haciendas return the land to the peasant communities. Together Madero, Villa, and Zapata and other revolutionary forces succeeded in overthrowing Diaz. An election was held and Madero was elected president.
• Madero proved a weak leader who failed to satisfy anyone, and he was overthrown and murdered by Victoriano Huerta. Once again the revolutionary forces rose, this time under Venustiano Carranza, Alvaro Obregon, Villa and Zapata, and once again they were victorious by 1915. But then the revolutionaries had a falling out, with the more conservative Carranza and Obregon and their Constitutionalist Army fighting against Villa and Zapata and their Conventionist forces.
• The Constitutionalists won, with Zapata and later Villa being assassinated. Then Carranza and Obregon had a falling out, and Carranza was assassinated and Obregon and his allies took power. Obregon became president in 1920, ending the violent phase of the revolution.
• The Mexican Revolution destroyed the old government and army of the dictator Porfirio Diaz, and eventually changed the country's economic and social system in important ways. Between 1920 and 1940, particularly under President Lazaro Cardenas (1934-1940), the Mexican revolutionary government radically altered the economic and social system in Mexico.

Vilia y emiliano Zapata

• Emiliano Zapata Salazar was a leader in the Mexican Revolution, which broke out in 1910, and was initially directed against president Porfirio Díaz. He formed and commanded an important revolutionary force, the Liberation Army of the South, during the Mexican Revolution.
• After Porfirio Díaz rose to power in 1876, the Mexican social and economic system was essentially a feudal system, with large estates controlling much of the land and squeezing out the independent communities of the people who were subsequently forced into debt slavery. Díaz ran local elections to pacify the people, and a government that could be argued was self-imposed.
• Even though he was young, the village was ready to hand over the controlling force to him without any worry of failure. He was able to create and cultivate relationships with political authority figures that would prove useful for him.
• Zapata became a leading figure in the village of Anenecuilco, where his family had lived for many generations, and he became involved in struggles for the rights of the campesinos of Morelos. He was able to oversee the redistribution of the land from some haciendas peacefully, but had problems with others. He observed numerous conflicts between villagers and hacendados, or landowners, over the constant theft of village land, and in one instance, saw the hacendados torch an entire village. Zapata began making use of armed force, simply taking over the land in dispute.

• The Mexican Drug War is an ongoing armed conflict among rival drug cartels fighting each other for regional control and against the Mexican government forces and civilian vigilante groups. Since 2006, when the Mexican military got involved, the government's principal goal has been to put down the drug-related violence. The Mexican government has claimed that their primary focus is on dismantling the powerful drug cartels, rather than on preventing drug trafficking.
• Although Mexican drug cartels, or drug trafficking organizations, have existed for several decades, they have become more powerful since the demise of the Colombian Cali and Medellín cartels in the 1990s. Mexican drug cartels now dominate the whole sale illicit drug market and in 2007 controlled 90% of the cocaine entering the United States. Arrests of key cartels has led to increasing drug violence as cartels fight for control of the trafficking routes into the United States.
• Analysts estimate that wholesale earnings from illicit drug sale range from $13.6 billion to $49.4 billion yearly.
• By the end of Felipe Calderón's administration (2006–2012), the official death toll of the Mexican Drug War was at least 60,000 and about 40,000 have disappeared which sets the rate to 100,000 deaths.
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