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Andreas Schleicher

on 10 September 2014

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Transcript of CMEC3

We know that...
A strategic approach
Better skills,
better jobs,
better lives

but degrees don't automatically translate into better outcomes
(cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr

because skills have an increasing impact on labour market outcomes and social participation

because failure to ensure a good skills match has both short- term consequences (skills shortages) and longer-term effects on economic growth and equality of opportunities

what knowledge and skills
drive economic and social outcomes
Effective skills systems build on effective partnerships with key stakeholders to find sustainable approaches to
who should do and pay for what, when and where
Learning the right mix of skills in
effective, equitable and efficient ways
Economies and labour-markets fully
their skill potential

Success with converting skills into jobs and growth depends on whether...
The Skills Strategy helps countries figure out how differnt
policies interact and helps countries optimise and align them
No one-size-fits all solutions
Redistribution of investments
in skills over the lifecycle
Market-oriented, social-partner-led, state-led partnerships, developmental skills system
Ageing socieities vs. developing econmies with large youth populations
Getting the best returns on investment in skills requires the capacity to assess the quality and quantity of the skills available in the population, determine and anticipate the skills required in the labour market, and develop and deploy available skills in the most effective and equitable ways over the
of people. It also requires strong governance arrangements and sustainable approaches to who should pay for what, when and how, particularly for learning beyond school.

Improve the stock of skills
Understanding changing
for skills
Improving quality

of education and training
Sharing costs fairly
governments, individuals and employers
Involving employers
in designing curricula and delivering education programmes
Involving trade unions
in providing on-the-job training
Facilitating entry for
skilled migrants
Investing in skills abroad
and encourage cross-border higher education
Making it easier for
international students
to remain in the country
Putting Skills to Work
Identifying inactive
and why they are inactive
that make it pay to work
Dismantling non-financial barriers

to participation in the labour force
Helping people
work longer
'brain drain'
Using skills where they can
make most of a difference
Helping employers to make
better use of their employees’ skills
better information
about the skills needed and available
more transparent
young people
gain a foothold in the labour market
internal mobility
Create more
high value-added
local economies
to move up the value chain
Fostering demand-sensitive and
relevant learning
involving employers

lifelong skills-oriented learning
instead of qualifications-focused education upfront in life course
By seeing skills as a tool to be honed over an individual’s lifetime, a strategic approach allows countries to assess the impact of different kinds of learning – from early childhood education through formal schooling to formal and informal learning throughout a lifetime – with the aim of balancing the allocation of resources to maximise economic and social outcomes.
short-term and long-term
Aligning perspectives
of different levels of government and multiple stakeholders
It is costly to develop a population’s skills, so skills policies need to be designed so that these investments reap the greatest economic and social benefits
Effective skills policies are needed to respond to structural and cyclical challenges, such as rising unemployment when economies contract or acute skills shortages when sectors boom, and to ensure longer-term strategic planning for the skills that are needed to foster a competitive edge and support required structural changes.
Skills policies straddle a broad range of policy fields, including education, science and technology, employment and social policies. In addition, there are links to many other policy fields such as economic development, migration and integration, or public finance. Aligning policies among these diverse fields helps to avoid duplication of efforts and ensure efficiency. It also helps policy makers to identify policy trade-offs that may be required.
With major geographical variations in the supply of and the demand for skills within countries, there is a strong rationale for considering skills policies at the local level. This would help countries to align national aspirations with local needs.
between government-led and market-oriented skills systems
Spending time in education is one thing; learning is another. Education and training institutions need to be governed by a clear quality-assurance framework that serves both accountability and improvement purposes. Workplace training should also be subject to quality control, in the form of contractual arrangements, inspections and self-evaluations
Employers can have to create a climate that supports learning, and invest in learning, and individuals must be willing to develop their skills throughout their working life. Governments can design financial incentives and favourable tax policies that encourage individuals and employers to invest in post-compulsory education and training
Compared to purely government-designed curricula taught in exclusively school-based systems, learning in the workplace offers important advantages
While skills policies are typically designed nationally, an increasing number of employers operate internationally and must derive their skills from both local sources and a global talent pool. Some countries have therefore started to consider skills policies beyond their national borders and have begun to invest in the skills of people in other countries.
Targeting activation policies efficiently requires identifying inactive individuals and their reasons for inactivity
Costly childcare services, tax systems that make work economically unattractive, or benefit systems that offer better compensation compared with expected salaries can make it uneconomical to work
Inflexible working conditions can make it difficult for people with care obligations and individuals with disabilities to participate in the labour force. Less rigid working-time arrangements and improved working conditions, particularly for workers with health problems, can also make employment more attractive to these traditionally inactive groups.
In the case of under-skilling, public policies can help to identify workers with low levels of foundation skills and offer an incentive to both employees and employers to invest in skills development to meet the requirements of the job. When the skills available aren’t adequately used, better management practices are needed. As workers assume more responsibility for identifying and tackling problems, they are also more likely to ‘learn by doing’, which in turn can spark innovation.
Quality career guidance becomes a critical part of any skills strategy. Coherent and easy-to-interpret qualifications can help employers to understand which skills are held by potential employees, making it easier to match a prospective employee to a job. Continuous certification that incorporates non-formal and informal learning over the working life is also essential, as is recognition of foreign diplomas.
Reducing costs and other barriers associated with internal mobility helps employees to find suitable jobs and helps employers to find suitable workers
Government programmes can influence both employer competitiveness strategies (how a company organises its work to gain competitive advantage in the markets in which it is operating) and product-market strategies, which determine in what markets the company competes.
Government programmes can influence both employer competitiveness strategies (how a company organises its work to gain competitive advantage in the markets in which it is operating) and product-market strategies, which determine in what markets the company competes.
...Skills change lives...
...and drive economies
composition of economies
Better skills,
better jobs,
better lives
Greater transparency of returns
Information and guidance for potential learners
Recognising learning outcomes
Flexible delivery that allows learners to decide what to learn when and how
Career Services (CS) (New Zealand)
Advanced data systems (Australia)
My Skills, My Future (US)
Regional knowledge centres for immigrants (Denmark)
Training programmes for highly qualified refugees (Netherlands)
European Qualifications Framework (EQF)
European Credit System for VET (ECVET)
Investors in People (UK)
Employer Ownership of Skills (UK)
Growth and Innovation Fund (UK)
Silicon Valley (US)
'Better, not cheaper' (Germany)
Riviera del Brenta (Italy)
Centre for entrepreneurs (Germany)
Ethnic Minority Business Service (UK)
Skills for the future, Quebec
10 September 2014, Andreas Schleicher

Living in the world
Ways of thinking
Ways of working
Life and careers
Personal and social responsibility
Creativity, critical thinking, problem-solving, decision-making and learning
Communication and collaboration
Tools for working
Information literacy, technology
Ways of thinking
Ways of working
Creativity, critical thinking, problem-solving, decision-making and learning
Communication and collaboration
Tools for working
Information literacy, technology
The knowledge economy does not pay you for what you know but for what you
can do
with what you know
Skills are
everybody's business
Living in the world
Life and careers
Personal and social responsibility
Thank you!
Find out more about our work at:
...and remember: Without data, you are just another person with an opinion
Performance in PISA 2009 (average reading, mathematics and science scores)
Lower secondary
Upper secondary
employers, unions and other stakeholders to strengthen links between educational programmes and labour market needs.
Draw on
employers’ perspectives
and capacity to:
assess whether content of curricula and qualifications meet current labour market needs
guide their adaptation to emerging requirements
develop qualifications and workplace training arrangements
appropriate bodies
for engaging employers and unions at national level, regionally, according to industrial sectors, or at the level of the individual institution.
Ensure that institutions and mechanisms to engage employers represent the
perspectives and opinions found within employers’ groups.
different incentives
Employers as a whole have very strong interest in general transferable skills, while individual employers and sectoral groupings often have narrower interests.
Trade unions have incentives to ensure that existing workers have access to good-quality training and have transferable skills but also have incentives to limit access to occupations
Find the appropriate role for government that supports the interests of students and balances the perspectives of employers and unions.
Integrating education and work
Engage employers to provide right mix of skills
Provide a mix of training places that reflects both
student preferences and employer needs
Engage employers and unions in
curriculum development
and ensure that the skills taught correspond to those needed in the modern workplace.
Provide young people with
, transferable skills to support occupational mobility and lifelong learning, and with occupationally-specific skills that meet employers’ immediate needs.
Ensure all students have adequate
numeracy and literacy
skills to support lifelong learning and career development.
Career guidance to deliver effective advice for all
Prepare teachers well with industry experience
Encourage trainers in educational institutions to spend some of their time working in industry.
Promote flexible pathways of recruitment and make it easier for those with industry skills to become part of the workforce of educational institutions through effective preparation.
Provide appropriate pedagogical and other preparation for trainers of interns, trainees and apprentices in workplaces.
Encourage interchange and partnership between educational institutions and industry, so that teachers and trainers spend time in industry to update their knowledge, and trainers in firms spend some time in educational institutions to enhance their pedagogical skills.
Maximise use of workplace training
Make substantial use of workplace training
Ensure that the framework for workplace training encourages both employers and students to participate.
Ensure workplace training is of good quality, through an effective quality assurance system and a clear contractual framework for apprenticeships.
Balance workplace training by other provision
Use effective tools to engage stakeholders and promote transparency
Engage employers and unions in policy and provision through effective mechanisms.
Systematically engage with employers, trade unions and other key stakeholders to develop and implement qualification frameworks, supported by strengthened quality assurance.
Adopt standardised national assessment frameworks to underpin quality and consistency in training provision.
Strengthen data on labour market outcomes, and provide the institutional capacity to analyse and disseminate that data.
Education and Employers
Many educationnal programmes currently:
fail to meet labour market needs
do not adequately prepare young people for jobs
are separated from the fast-changing world of modern economies
What students want to study
What employers need
What can be provided
Use mechanisms to help in balancing student preferences and employer needs, such as:
linking programmes and places to employers’ willingness to provide workplace training
assessing future skill needs through consultations with employers and unions and/or through systematic forecasts or assessments
using financial incentives to encourage students to train in specific areas, to boost the amount of workplace training offered, or to expand off-the job training opportunities to address demand

Recognise that rapidly evolving jobs and careers have expanded career opportunities, but choices are becoming harder, and career guidance is therefore becoming both more important and more demanding.
Provide reliable and impartial sources of guidance so that young people do not have to rely on informal sources of guidance.
Develop effective guidance services that can yield large returns by developing the career-related skills, self-awareness and self-esteem which lead to rewarding choices.
Develop a
separate profession
of career advisors.
Ensure that career advisors have: a good knowledge of labour markets, careers and learning opportunities; the ability to find young peoples' interests, aptitudes and objectives so as to help them make choices which are both realistic and fulfilling; the competencies to help individuals to manage their own careers
Develop a
qualification system
for career advisors
Preserve their
of guidance professionals from the institutions (such as schools) in which they are based
Deliver key elements of guidance pro-actively to all students, so that students can be supported by one-to-one guidance by professionals when they make key career decisions.
Regularly update information sources to identify emerging occupations and areas of skills shortage, as well as current and potential areas of skills oversupply and redundancy.
Properly evaluate career guidance initiatives to establish the case for effective resourcing and identify how best to employ those resources.
The right balance
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