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Transcript of Optogenetics
Large amount of adult neurogenesis
Neurogenesis- the formation of new cells in the brain
Increased through exercise
Limited to this region and the olfactory bulbs (smell)
Can be turned on and off
Depolarization- turn on
Hyper-polarization- turn off
Pumping H+ ions out of the cell hyperpolarizes the cell
Type of archaea
Contain halorhodopsin-a transmembrane ion channel that is activated by light and allows chloride ions to enter the cell
How Do We Do This?
Able to target a gene to a specific place
Can breed mice that express halorhodopsin channels in the new neurons of the dentate gyrus
Be able to target new neurons and deactivate them
Study the function of new neurons in the dentate gyrus
Why is neurogenesis increased by exercise?
What behavior will be changed by the deactivation?
The use of light to activate or deactivate cells using specific channels
By activating proton pumps, the cell can be hyper-polarized (shut off)
Temporary (no compensatory measures)
How do we target these cells?
We cannot destroy the cells
Other brain regions compensate
Solution- Put them "offline"
1. Create transgenic mice expressing the channels
2. Genotype the mice
3. Check for "leaky" expression using GFP
4. Insert micro-LEDs that will activate the channels
5. Check for cFos expression
6. Behavioral tests after the model has been proven
Incredibly small light emitting diodes
Placed into the brain a few weeks before testing
Will emit light at a wavelength of 570nm to activate the channels
By Madison Barker
Cells can not be destroyed
The brain will compensate
How do we control the cells?
How do we target specific cells without "leakage"?
How do we test for this leakage?
Transgenic lines have been bred
Surgery procedure has been tested
Micro-LEDs have been tested for functionality and lifespan
Leber's Congenital Amaurosis
Could lead to improved therapies, medications, and discoveries
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