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Europe Reacts to Napoleon's Downfall
Transcript of Europe Reacts to Napoleon's Downfall
Romanticism Influences Art
1848 Is a Year
Europe Reacts to Napoleon's Downfall
Trends in European Politics
The Congress of Vienna seeks to restore traditional ways
-CONSERVATISM : political philosophy based on the desire to preserve traditions and long established institutions.
*It was a reaction against the ideas of the Enlightenment and the radical changes of the French Revolution.
Afraid of two things
1. Radical Social Change
2.Revolutionary Principle of equality
Believed in two things
1.Institutions were necessary for a well- run society.
2.Organized religion was basic for a stable society.
LIBERALISM: pol. philo. based on a belief in indiv. freedom, equality under law, and freedom of thought and religion.
NATIONALISM: pol. philo. based on a belief in loyalty and devotion to a nation.
Liberals call for equality and change
it was necessary to change institutions and traditions that did not promote
and protection of
Nationalist feelings emerge in the French Revolution
Frenchmen defend LA PATRIE.
Fought for their nation.
Developed among people who shared common traditions, history or language.
Metternich dominates the Congress
Re- establish conservatism and discourage liberal and nationalist ideas.
Nine ruling monarchs were at the meeting.
Prince Klemens von Metternich
- hosted the meeting.
1.hated liberal ideas.
2.thought that reshaping the society according to the ideals of liberty and equality brought 25 years of revolution, terror and war.
Prussia and Russia threaten the balance of power
Disagreements among the delegates.
1.Prussia and Russia hoped to gain new lands.
2.Prussia wanted Saxony.
3.Russian Czar wanted new Polish kingdom
France gains a voice in the Congress
Prince Talleyrand of France, together with Metternich and British delegate Viscount Castlereagh opposed Prussia and Russia's demands for land
The Congress of Vienna changes the European borders
Peace settlement changed many borders in Europe.
France had to give up lands gained by Napoleon.
European monarchies are restored
- LEGITIMACY: restoration of ruling families.
The Church regained Papal States.
The Concert of Europe maintains European stability
Agreements were made:
1. Quadruple Alliance
*Russia, Austria, Prussia & Great Britain ( 1815).
2.Concert of Europe
*Quadruple Alliance + France
3. Holy Alliance
* Russia, Prussia and Austria
Metternich tries to suppress liberalism and nationalism
Metternich's System- resist threats to the established orders.
Issuance of Carlsbad Decrees
1.Set up of Spy Systems
2.Censored books and newspapers
1. Spy System to report on liberal and radical organizations & established censorship over newspapers & university lectures.
1820 to 1830
Movements for liberal persist
Liberals and Nationalists continued to:
1.organize secret societies,
2.print revolutionary newspapers,
3.collect weapons and
Italian reformers seek independence & unity
Hoped to unify Italian states.
Hoped for freedom.
A revolt in Russia fails
Hoped to westernize Russia & establish a constitution.
Decembrist uprising ( Dec. 1825)
Greece gains independence
1st successful revolution.
Orthodox Greeks vs. Muslim Turks.
Britain, France & Russia helped Greece win its independence.
People of Paris again rebel
Louis XVIII (1814)
Freedom of speech, press & religion
Charles X (1824)
ordered censorship of newspapers & restrictions on voting.
Revolts break out in Italy and Belgium
Italian rebels vs. Austrian troops
Religious and cultural differences inspired a revolt in Belgium.
Belgian patriots proclaimed its independence from Protestant Netherlands
Polish rebels are crashed
Polish rebels were not united.
Polish students and army officers wanted independence, peasants wanted land.
Romanticism stresses emotion over reason
- intense indiv. emotions and imagination.
- Romanticism started in Germany & Italy.
- strict rules imposed on creative works.
Romantic writers take a new view of nature
-Romantic poets : memorable images with words, creating a sense of wonder and delight.
Romantic writers emphasize imagination
- imagination was used to create stories & poems based on fantasy & supernatural.
- Gothic writing
*Edgar Allan Poe, Mary Shelley...
Romanticism influences the development of nationalism
- unique national charac., expressed in folk, traditions, language & historic institutions.
- Madame de Staël : National Character.
- Romantic novelists & dramatists: Legends.
- Musicians : emphasized nationalist ideas & themes.
Economic problems trouble Europe
- 1846-1848 : Economic crisis (Disease & drought)
- shortages caused high prices, riots, & widespread suffering.
- severe unemployment
Discontent increases in France
- unemployment & low wages
- ALexis de Tocqueville : "I believe that we are at this moment sleeping on a volcano."
-SOCIALISM: government to control one's economy, not a private individuals.
A workers' revolt follows a moderate revolution
- revolutions: FEB: delays in reform
- Louis Blanc- government to make changes
- National Workshop: provided jobs
-1852 : Emperor Napoleon III
Nationalism leads to revolt in Austrian lands
- nationalist uprising