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Emerging Adults Career Identity Development

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Lucia Kvitkovicova

on 12 April 2017

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Transcript of Emerging Adults Career Identity Development

Do you feel that you have reached adulthood?
Professor J.J. Arnett

Clark University

Massachusetts

First marriage postponement (the mean age of brides was
28,1
in 2011 compared to
21.8
in 1989, and for grooms it rose from
24.6
to
33,8
) (Eurostat) [cohabitation]
First childbirth postponement
Prolonging period of education (At ages 18 to 24, about 60% of Czechs are still in some form of formal studies, yet this number decreases to 15% at ages 25 to 29 (ČSÚ, 2013))
Residential change (living at more places at once)
Below 50% economically active young people (various type of income)

Lifestyle of young people (18-25/29) has changed dramatically in industrialized societies!
[Feeling "in between", Identity exploration, Instability, Self focusing, Sense of possibilities ]




2004: Emerging Adulthood: The Winding Road from Late Teens through the Twenties
http://www.jeffreyarnett.com

http://www.ssea.org
Great deal of variation across&within countries!!
Emerging adulthood identified in Czech Republic (Macek, Bejcek, Vanickova, 2007)

Paths to Adulthood
” (Macek et al., 2012): Internet based project
main purpose: examine how Czech emerging adults
develop autonomy
and the
identity
associated with their
relationships
,
education
, and
work


"It is primarily the inability to settle on an occupational identity which disturbs young people" (Erikson, 1959, p. 252)
Occupational identity
dynamic organization of occupational self-perception, shaped by "qualitative and quantitative changes in the structure and form of identification with the role of a worker that occurs as a result of the interaction between the epigenetic unfolding of the person's capabilities and learning through self-chosen and socially assigned vocational, educational, and leisure activities" (Skorikov, Vondracek, 2007)
- merging studying&working
- the numbers of unemployed or underemployed individuals with university degrees are rising (Czech Employment Office, UPCR, 2014)
- frequent changing of jobs in the early career phase (RANDSTAD, 2014)
- high proportion of full-time workers (39%) who still perceive themselves to be emerging adults (Macek, Bejček, & Vaníčková, 2007).



Striving for financial independence
Theoretical background

-revisions of the original identity status paradigm theory proposed by Marcia (Grotevant, 1987, Bosma, 1992, 1995;
Bosma
& Kunnen, 2001) :
EXPLORATION
&
COMMITMENT

-
Super
's Life span theory, Career construction theory (1953)
EXPLORATION
(14-24)=collecting information about self and occupations
consists of developmental tasks: -
crystallisation
of occupational preferences
-
specification
of vocational choice and
-
actualisation
of professional choice

-
Gottfredson
's Theory of Circumscription & Compromise (1981, 1996)
IMAGES OF OCCUPATION -> COGNITIVE MAP OF OCCUPATION
Circumscription: size&power -> sex roles -> social value -> orientation to unique self
Compromise - considering accessibility of wanted jobs! -> acceptable zone of alternatives
[Emerging adulthood (
Arnett
, 2004; 2006, 2007, 2011) :
Looking for identity based job
]
Main career exploration activity = Work experience
- main contributor to the process of career identity development (Zimmer-Gembeck & Mortimer, 2006; Stringer & Kerpelman, 2010)
volume of work (Earl & Bright, 2003)

career-relevancy of work experience
(Ohler, Levinson, & Barker, 1996; Stringer & Kerpelman, 2010)

desirability of work experience
(Creed & Blume, 2012; Arnett, 2011)
Participants
431 participants, average age= 22.25 years (SD=1.40; range=18.83-28.83)
74% female participants and 21,3 % male participants
83,2% of our sample reported working and studying at the same time; 16,8% reported working only.

H: Perceived relevancy of work experience, perceived desirability of work experience and volume of work predict the emerging adults' strength of career commitment.
Methods
Career commitment : Groningen Identity Development Scale (GIDS; Bosma, 1985)

Career-relevancy of the job : Your current job: 1. is a directly connected to my career goals /2. is indirectly connected to my career goals (studying languages, developing communication skills, etc.)/3. is only the way how to currenly make my living/4. other.

Desirability of the job : Your current job: 1. is your
always wanted
job /2. is back-up plan of your
always wanted
job/3. is random job/4. other.
We showed significant effect of quantitative and qualitative aspects of work experience in predicting career commitment.

We underlied the importance of
qualitative aspects of work experience

We called for greater attention to
apprenticeships
and
vocational guidance
in helping to acquire crucial work expereinces.

We aspire to inspire the construction of
more valid measures of work experience
.



Limitations
- sample
- method
Career decision making self-efficacy (Social learning theories) in connection with work experience, career commitment and well-being

Relational influences on career identity (parents)



Modern economies

requires possessing of proactive, dynamic, and highly individualized career identity

How could educational system promotes career identity of young people?
2000:
Emerging adulthood:
A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties
(
entering marriage and parenthood
)
-> self-focused exploration as they try out different possibilities in love and work

person (personality&gender)
<-> vocational experience
<-> career self-efficacy
<-> career commitment
family&peer group
social&economic conditions
career-relevancy of the job (F(2,339)=75.56,p<.001, partial eta-squared=.30),
desirability of the job (F(2,339)=28,16,p<.001, partial eta-squared=.14),
volume of work (F(5,339)=3,21,p<.01, partial eta-squared=.04).

Planned comparisons indicated that the mean score of the career identity for the indirectly career-relevant job was significantly higher than for the career-irrelevant job (p<0.001) and that the mean score of the career identity for the career-relevant job was significantly higher than for the career-irrelevant job (p<0.001).

Planned comparisons indicated that the mean score of the career identity for the dream job was significantly higher than for the random job (p<.001) but the mean score of the career identity for the back-up plan job was not significantly higher than for random job (p=.098).
Thank you for your attention
Career Identity Development: Implication for Emerging Adults
Lucia Kvitkovičová, Masaryk University
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