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Emerging Adults Career Identity Development
Transcript of Emerging Adults Career Identity Development
Professor J.J. Arnett
First marriage postponement (the mean age of brides was
in 2011 compared to
in 1989, and for grooms it rose from
) (Eurostat) [cohabitation]
First childbirth postponement
Prolonging period of education (At ages 18 to 24, about 60% of Czechs are still in some form of formal studies, yet this number decreases to 15% at ages 25 to 29 (ČSÚ, 2013))
Residential change (living at more places at once)
Below 50% economically active young people (various type of income)
Lifestyle of young people (18-25/29) has changed dramatically in industrialized societies!
[Feeling "in between", Identity exploration, Instability, Self focusing, Sense of possibilities ]
2004: Emerging Adulthood: The Winding Road from Late Teens through the Twenties
Great deal of variation across&within countries!!
Emerging adulthood identified in Czech Republic (Macek, Bejcek, Vanickova, 2007)
Paths to Adulthood
” (Macek et al., 2012): Internet based project
main purpose: examine how Czech emerging adults
associated with their
"It is primarily the inability to settle on an occupational identity which disturbs young people" (Erikson, 1959, p. 252)
dynamic organization of occupational self-perception, shaped by "qualitative and quantitative changes in the structure and form of identification with the role of a worker that occurs as a result of the interaction between the epigenetic unfolding of the person's capabilities and learning through self-chosen and socially assigned vocational, educational, and leisure activities" (Skorikov, Vondracek, 2007)
- merging studying&working
- the numbers of unemployed or underemployed individuals with university degrees are rising (Czech Employment Office, UPCR, 2014)
- frequent changing of jobs in the early career phase (RANDSTAD, 2014)
- high proportion of full-time workers (39%) who still perceive themselves to be emerging adults (Macek, Bejček, & Vaníčková, 2007).
Striving for financial independence
-revisions of the original identity status paradigm theory proposed by Marcia (Grotevant, 1987, Bosma, 1992, 1995;
& Kunnen, 2001) :
's Life span theory, Career construction theory (1953)
(14-24)=collecting information about self and occupations
consists of developmental tasks: -
of occupational preferences
of vocational choice and
of professional choice
's Theory of Circumscription & Compromise (1981, 1996)
IMAGES OF OCCUPATION -> COGNITIVE MAP OF OCCUPATION
Circumscription: size&power -> sex roles -> social value -> orientation to unique self
Compromise - considering accessibility of wanted jobs! -> acceptable zone of alternatives
[Emerging adulthood (
, 2004; 2006, 2007, 2011) :
Looking for identity based job
Main career exploration activity = Work experience
- main contributor to the process of career identity development (Zimmer-Gembeck & Mortimer, 2006; Stringer & Kerpelman, 2010)
volume of work (Earl & Bright, 2003)
career-relevancy of work experience
(Ohler, Levinson, & Barker, 1996; Stringer & Kerpelman, 2010)
desirability of work experience
(Creed & Blume, 2012; Arnett, 2011)
431 participants, average age= 22.25 years (SD=1.40; range=18.83-28.83)
74% female participants and 21,3 % male participants
83,2% of our sample reported working and studying at the same time; 16,8% reported working only.
H: Perceived relevancy of work experience, perceived desirability of work experience and volume of work predict the emerging adults' strength of career commitment.
Career commitment : Groningen Identity Development Scale (GIDS; Bosma, 1985)
Career-relevancy of the job : Your current job: 1. is a directly connected to my career goals /2. is indirectly connected to my career goals (studying languages, developing communication skills, etc.)/3. is only the way how to currenly make my living/4. other.
Desirability of the job : Your current job: 1. is your
job /2. is back-up plan of your
job/3. is random job/4. other.
We showed significant effect of quantitative and qualitative aspects of work experience in predicting career commitment.
We underlied the importance of
qualitative aspects of work experience
We called for greater attention to
in helping to acquire crucial work expereinces.
We aspire to inspire the construction of
more valid measures of work experience
Career decision making self-efficacy (Social learning theories) in connection with work experience, career commitment and well-being
Relational influences on career identity (parents)
requires possessing of proactive, dynamic, and highly individualized career identity
How could educational system promotes career identity of young people?
A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties
entering marriage and parenthood
-> self-focused exploration as they try out different possibilities in love and work
<-> vocational experience
<-> career self-efficacy
<-> career commitment
career-relevancy of the job (F(2,339)=75.56,p<.001, partial eta-squared=.30),
desirability of the job (F(2,339)=28,16,p<.001, partial eta-squared=.14),
volume of work (F(5,339)=3,21,p<.01, partial eta-squared=.04).
Planned comparisons indicated that the mean score of the career identity for the indirectly career-relevant job was significantly higher than for the career-irrelevant job (p<0.001) and that the mean score of the career identity for the career-relevant job was significantly higher than for the career-irrelevant job (p<0.001).
Planned comparisons indicated that the mean score of the career identity for the dream job was significantly higher than for the random job (p<.001) but the mean score of the career identity for the back-up plan job was not significantly higher than for random job (p=.098).
Thank you for your attention
Career Identity Development: Implication for Emerging Adults
Lucia Kvitkovičová, Masaryk University