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Pulp and Paper
Transcript of Pulp and Paper
Tell the history of papermaking. Describe the part paper products play in our society and economy.
2000 years ago, in the year 105, in China Ts'ai Lun made paper from ground up plants
In 751, the Chinese lost a battle to Arabs in Central Asia. Arabs took prisoners who knew how to make paper. Papermaking technology spread throughout the Middle East and Africa
The paper making that the Arabs learned from the Chinese replaced the papyrus used in Ancient Egypt
Arabs from North Africa brought paper to Spain in 1150. Monks had been writing on parchment (animal skin) for holy books for years
Printing press was invented in 1450 and books were more popular
Paper was made one page at a time, also made from rags, and not a uniform size or shape
1817 first paper mill, consistant size and shape, cheaper, and made from wood pulp
Learn about the pulp and paper industry.
Describe the ways the industry plants, grows, and harvests trees.
Paper mills use softwood, such as pine, which have long fibers and make stronger paper. Hardwoods, like oak have shorter fibers which make smoother paper for printing and writing.
Explain how the industry manages its forests so that the supply of trees keeps pace with the demand.
A paper mill might grow its own crop of trees, or use leftovers from a lumber mill, or use diseased and dying trees
Paper mills might grow its own trees on tree farms. They replace the trees they cut down - "Sustainable Forestry."
Tell how the industry has incorporated the concepts of sustainable forest management (SFM).
In order to keep the tree farms producing, the foresters have to fish and wildlife, clean air and water.
Methods of Harvesting
Clearcutting- Cutting all the trees in an area
Seed trees- harvest all but a few trees to provide seeds for new trees,
Shelterwood system- leave stands of big trees to provide shelter to young trees,
Single tree selection- pick out individual trees to cut,
Improvement cutting-take out the bad trees
Describe two ways the papermaking industry has addressed pollution.
Recycling- using old paper to make new paper
Tree farms help combat global warming
List the trees that are major sources of papermaking fibers.
Pine, Oak, lumber for houses, furniture
Describe two ways of getting fibers from wood, and explain the major differences between them.
Pulping- mechanically or by cooking wood in chemicals, or a combination
Mechanical- grind up the wood, discolored and weak, good for low-quality paper
Thermomechanical pulp- Grind up the wood, steamed and spun through discs. Makes stronger paper
Chemical pulping - Chemicals dissolve all the lignin (the stuff that keeps wood together), in a pressure cooker called a digester, makes nice, strong paper
Tell why some pulps are bleached, and describe the process.
Makes nicer writing paper, color can be removed from pulp, done in a series of steps, using different chemicals.
Describe how paper is made.
Pulping- remove pulp from wood
Mixing and blending- add different kinds of pulp, chemicals, sizing, fillers
Forming sheets- spread wet pulp into long, flat sheets, onto a screen, press out water and add water in, heat and dry, drain
Discuss how paper is recycled.
Contaminates and ink are removed from pulp, mix, blend and press
Make a sheet of paper by hand.
Supplies- various kinds of scrap paper, bucket, screen, tub, tacks, starch, fabric, sponge, putty knife, cookie sheet
Tear up paper
Soak for a few hours or overnight
Wet paper in blender, blend until smooth
Mix it in the tub with water
Dip the screen into the tub, shake to get the pulp even
Make a sheet of paper by hand.
Dip the mold, (the screen) into the tub of pulp
Lift the mold out with a thin layer of pulp on the screen. Let the water drain off.
Lay the screen face down on the fabric
Pat with a sponge to remove the water, The paper should separate from the screen
Lift the mold while holding the fabric down.
Let the paper dry for a few hours or overnight
It may curl up, you can put a book on it to keep it flat
Explain what coated paper is and why it is coated. Describe the major uses for different kinds of coated papers. Describe one other way that paper is changed by chemical or mechanical means to make new uses possible.
Coating gives paper texture, color, or makes them waterproof
Milk cartons, cardboard, paper cups are coated.
Other chemical or mechanical changes- photographic paper, cardboard, matting
Make a list of 15 pulp or paper products found in your home. Share examples of 10 such products with your counselor.
With your parent’s and counselor’s approval, do ONE of the following:
Visit a recycled paper collection or sorting facility. Describe the operations there.
Using books, magazines, your local library, the Internet (with your parent’s permission), and any other suitable research tool, find out how paper products are developed. Find out what role research and development play in the papermaking industry. Share what you learn with your counselor. (Wikipedia-paper)
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Find out about three career opportunities in the papermaking industry that interest you. Pick one and find out the education, training, and experience required for this profession. Discuss this with your counselor, and explain why this profession might interest you.
p.51 of manual
Forestry and Timber Operations
Engineering- work and make paper mills
Manfacturing- plan mill operations, make paper, maintain machines
Research and Development