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Self - Regulation, Will, and Motivation

Chapter 8

Catherine Kim

on 24 March 2011

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Transcript of Self - Regulation, Will, and Motivation

Self - Regulation,
Will, and Motivation Chapter 8 Self - Regulation
our effort to monitor and
regulate our own behaviors,
cognitions (thinking),
and emotions so as to reach
our goals. our ability to manipulate
ourselves to reach specific goals Most individuals want to achieve,
and most organizations
feel pressure to achieve the highest
results at the lowest cost. We can improve our self - regulation Example: developing our self-regulation skills occurs throughout our lives
most adolescents struggle with independence and responsibility.
college environment is an especially
difficult to assume a high degree of self-discipline or self-regulation Students: Some students: can regulate their own behaviors appropriately.
Many students: struggle with the simple tasks of going to class, doing
assignments in a timely manner,maintaining their finances, and even
doing their laundry. (Especially for students who rely heavily
on their parents, the need for self-regulation can be intense.) Academic Self-Regulation Cognitive behavioral psychologists view every action through a triple lens:
First: the observable behavior itself
Second: feelings of the person doing the behavior
Third: person’s thoughts about the behavior Academic Self-regulated learning – your ability to monitor and control your own behavior, thinking and emotions as you acquire knowledge and skills during learning.
We can control our behavior through access to resources such as time, study environment, peers, and teachers.
We can control and change our motivational beliefs including self-efficacy, emotions and affect (such as anxiety) to improve our learning. Control cognitive strategies for learning: what we say to ourselves, and we can use our self-understanding to recognize our own preferences and strategies. Will Will: the power of conscious and unconscious control that we have over our own actions or emotions. Motivation and talent are not enough to accomplish goals. Underachieve: they are not motivated enough to do the work to attain a goal, even though they have the talents. Students and their families and friends know they have to talent they need to achieve the goal, but the students seem to lack the power to make themselves do what they want and intend to do. We all would like to have strong will so that we could more easily reach a desired goal.
Example: to quit smoking or study more
We have to use our will to control both our actions and emotions in order to reach our goals. intensely achievement-based culture, and competition starts early
Children are taught that knowing the right answer, making the grade, winning the game matter.
Intense criticism at home or in the family can lead children to be afraid to take a risk. Our culture:
Academic Motivation
those thoughts and feelings that initiate, direct, and sustain action. Motivation – Five issues that determine our level of motivation: Choices – what we choose to do? Some students attend class regularly whereas others miss class to catch up on sleep, errands, and so forth.
Initiation – how rapidly we begin the behavior? Some students study before they go out with friends whereas others delay studying until the next day.
Intensity – how hard do we try? Some students are actively engaged in the lecture/discussion in class whereas others go through the motions of taking notes.
Persistence – how long do we try? Some students are determined to understand study material and seek help when necessary whereas others give up when learning is difficult.
Thoughts/feelings – what do we think and feel while we are engaged? Some students feed confident that they can successfully complete an assignment where as others worry that they will fail. Psychological Elements that impact motivation If we can understand and control the factors of choice, initiation, intensity, persistence, and thoughts/feelings, then we have a much greater opportunity to increase academic motivation. Researchers have identified many psychological elements that seem to affect these factors.
They organized the most important into three groups: values, needs, and expectations.
Academic opportunities attending an outside lecture
conducting research with a professor.
engaging in serious conversations with fellow students
seeking help from tutors
participating in test review sessions
teaching a lab
Considering an opportunity three types of psychological elements that impact our level of motivation to reach the desired behavior or outcome. Why do i want to accomplish this task?
What drives me?
Can i accomplish this task? Values Values are the reasons why we prize or disregard the completion of a task. Internal reasons: how interested we are in a task, how personally useful we think the task is, and how much we want to accomplish the task. Interest – a feeling of curiosity or concern about something that makes the attention turn toward it.  something that serves a useful purpose.
 Utility – Goal – something that somebody wants to achieve. External reasons: rewards we receive and how important people in our lives will view us.  Incentive – something that encourages or motivates somebody to do something.  Expectations of others – a standard of conduct or performance set by other people. Needs Needs motivates students to behave so as to attain satisfaction and rewards. They are inherited feelings and beliefs that direct attention and energy toward determining priorities and goals. Achievement – something that somebody has succeeded in doing, usually with effort.
Competence – the ability to do something well.
Self-worth – an individual’s confidence in his/her personal value.
Creativity – the ability to use the imagination to develop new and original ideas or things If we have a strong need for academic achievement, then we tend to work diligently at tasks and use feedback to improve.
If we are afraid to fail because we believe failure is shameful and humiliating, then we will avoid challenging tasks, go for the easy way or the difficult way. Expectations Expectation: are the judgments we make regarding how competent we are to achieve a task and our ability to control our behavior. The primary expectations relevant to academic tasks: Previous experience – the total of the things that have happened to an individual and of his or her past thoughts and feelings.
Success of others – the achievements of peers.
Feedback – opinions and reactions to some actions.
Self-efficacy – the confidence that we can meet whatever performance standards the situation requires.
Attribution – how we explain our academic success or failure. Even if the task is difficult and complex, if we have high self-efficacy we tend to engage actively in learning.
If we believe we are responsible for our own success, that our ability and effort helps us become more competent, then our self-efficacy improves.
We gradually develop self-regulatory ability from early childhood and we are heavily influenced by our families and our school experiences. Stages of self-regulatory ability Stage 1: Chaos When we lose track of assignments and due dates or we are so far behind that we cannot even decide where to begin. Leads to stop gong to class without consulting their teachers. Triggered by: troubled personal relationships, anxiety, economic or family crises, depression, addictions of any kind or major illness. To get out of chaos: First acknowledge that our life has become chaotic
Second seek help (go to teachers) Things you can do in this situation: make a concise list of priority tasks and set due dates for each one. Stage 2: Stability The logical path from chaos to stability is to consciously set and follow rules. To avoid the chaos: Set the absolute rule of class attendance – to attend every class, without exception.
Maintain a master calendar daily with all assignments and due dates written down.
Setting a certain time and place for daily study. Helpful rules to stability
 Tracking daily tasks and making positive statements about what you are accomplishing.
 Family and friends’ support and encouragement. Once stability become our normal academic demeanor, we know what is required in everycourse, we have set goals, our behaviors are sufficient to achieve our goals, and we begin to build confidence in our ability to follow the rules we have set.
Stage 3: Flexibility Flexibility: As our confidence grows we have self-control to behaviors, thoughts, and feelings to reach our academic goals. Basically this means if you set a study date you would try to stick with it or if something comes up you should try to deal with the situation to keep your study time.

Stage 4: Mastery Mastery: occurs when the principles and the adjustments take place automatically, unconsciously. Managing our behaviors, thoughts and feelings become easy, and we can trust ourselves to manage the elements of our daily lives.

These are the needs most relevant to academic motivation: By Catherine Kim, Corey Coby, Kurk
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