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WWI & the Interwar Years
Transcript of WWI & the Interwar Years
Kristallnacht Triple Alliance
The Zimmerman Telegraph
Wilson’s 14 Points
Treaty of Versailles Unit 10 Vocabulary Militarism - military build up to protect overseas colonies
Competition between countries
Germany in particular (remember "blood & iron"?)
Everyone is ready to act at first sign of trouble Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism Alliances - protection from opposition
Triple Alliance - Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
Triple Entente ("cooperate") - France, Russia, Great Britain
Goal: Keep peace (the hope was that one nation wouldn't wage war against 3 nations) Imperialism - building empires led to competition
Competition is very cut-throat, aggressive, & ill-willed
Remember the Scramble for Africa?
What did imperialism offer European countries? Nationalism - pride/devotion to one's nation
Example: Balkans - ethnic groups trying to break away and gain independence from Ottoman Empire, the main group = Serbia
Some Serbs lived in surrounding areas & Serbia wanted to expand by uniting them
Tensions rise between Serbia & Austria-Hungary Immediate Cause =
Archduke Franz Ferdinand Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand visited Sarajevo, Bosnia on June 28, 1914
Bosnia taken over by Austria 6 years prior and still very bitter
Serbia terrorist group called "Black Hand" wanted to expand Serbia by uniting Slavs in Bosnia... but Austria stood in the way Gavrilo Princep (19 yrs old) shots & killed Ferdinand & his wife Sophie Impact:
Austria learned of Black Hand's plans & wants to punish Serbia
Russia promised to support Serbia if Austria attacked
Germany (Austria's ally) saw Russia's promise as a threat & declares war on Russia & its ally, France Germany faces war on 2 fronts:
Eastern front (Russia's border)
Western front (France's border) Schlieffen Plan Focus on and defeat France quickly (it'll take Russia time to mobilize troops b/c size of country) & then turn to Russia
Went through Belgium (neutral nation) to France
Problem: Great Britain disapproved of involving Belgium so declared war on Germany Two Sides: CENTRAL POWERS
ALLIED POWERS Color code your map! Early Major Battles August 1914 - Battle of the Frontiers
France & Great Britain vs. Germany
Huge loss for both sides, but Germany won
August 1914 - Battle of Tannenberg
Russia attacked Germany, but shamefully lost
But, it allowed western front to refocus
Sept. 1914 - Battle of Marne
Allies pushed Germany back & Germany built trench to await attack near Aisne ("Ayn") River
Allies responded by digging their own trench - leads to trench warfare & deadlock Warm Up 1. Looking at the map, where is France in location to the German Confederation?
2. According to the map, which part of the German Confederation is split into two sections?
3. According to the map, where is Great Britain in location to France?
4. Why did Great Britain have a stable economy in the 1700s (before industrialism)?
5. What happened as a result of mass production?
6. Mercantilism says that a nation bases its wealth on ___________________.
7. Tell me the beliefs of:
Montesquieu A New Kind of War TRENCH WARFARE Conditions
Lice, rats, creatures
"Over the top" orders
Dead left where they were http://www.warmuseum.ca/cwm/games/overtop/index_e.shtml# NEW WEAPONS Poison gas
Aircraft (to spy & drop bombs) Total War meaning all of society is involved (factories, men, women, gov't, etc.) Propaganda: trying to influence the way people think Warm Up 1. When did WWI start?
2. What were the long term causes of WWI?
3. What was the immediate cause of WWI?
4. Where was Franz Ferdinand from?
5. What countries were part of the Triple Alliance?
6. What countries were part of the Triple Entente?
7. What was the problem for Germany?
*Study for your map quiz!*
HAPPY FRIDAY! Battle of Verdum (1916) Verdum = valued French fortress
Germany thinks France will defend it at all costs
Germany's goal: kill as many French as possible ("bleed France white")
400,000 casualties in 3 months, ends in stalemate Battle of Somme (1916) British try to distract Germany from France
60,000 British die
No breakthrough 3rd Battle of Ypres (1916) Same story... "World" War? Ottomans join - Controlled Russia's access to Mediterranean Sea
Armenian Massacre - Ottomans thought Armenians aided Russia and start genocide (deliberate destruction of a racial/political/cultural group)
Asia & African colonies help allies in hopes of independence END OF THE WAR Russia Struggles Czar faced opposition from Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin (follows Marxism)
Russia struggled against Germany & Nicholas II tried to lead military, meanwhile Grigory Rasputin (crazy "holy man") advises czarina Alexandra until he's murdered
1917 Revolution caused czar to step down & provisional gov't to begin - it also faced opposition from Bolsheviks
Bolshevik Revolution is successful & Leon Trotsky ends participation in war by accepting harsh agreement with Germany leading to Civil War
Lenin established a New Economic Plan
Soviet Union emerged United States Entered Until 1917, US had been neutral under Woodrow Wilson
Lusitania (a British passenger ship) sunk by German U-boat (submarine) killing 1,200 ppl (120 Americans)
Zimmerman Note - Germany tried to get Mexico to start war with US as a distraction
1917 - US entered war with fresh recruits & resources
Germany does not stand a chance Then what? WILSON'S 14 POINTS
Called for reduction of weapons
A country's ppl should choose gov't
Created a international organization to support peace
BUT, France's Clemenceau wanted Germany to suffer Treaty of Versailles Germany must pay war reparations & admit full responsibility for war
German military will be limited in size
Germany must return land to France & Russia, Poland will become independent
Germany's colonies will be divided up by Allied Powers
League of Nations established (Germany is not allowed & US Congress refuses to participate)
Austria-Hungary & Ottoman Empire divided into Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, & Turkey
Britain issues Balfour Declaration making Palestine a home for Jews
Germany is extremely humiliated, its economy is ruined, & it is very bitter Costs of War 8.5 million soldiers killed
13 million civilians killed
21 million wounded Europe's economy declines & US & Japan emerge as world powers $332 BILLION Communism in Soviet Union & other political instability Warm Up 1. Which countries were Central Powers during WWI?
2. Which countries were Allied Powers during WWI?
3. Describe trench warfare.
4. What was the Schlieffen Plan?
5. What were the 4 long term causes of WWI?
6. What was the immediate cause of WWI?
7. What new weapons were developed in WWI? INTERWAR YEARS Unrest in Asia & Africa China India Middle East Africa German colonies in China given to Japan as a result of the Treaty of Versailles
Communist Party forms in 1921, opposed by Nationalists
Mao Zedong leads Communists to safety in Long March (6,000 miles) through China Despite India helping GB fight in WWI, it does not get independence
Indians protest, but put down by Amristar Massacre (400 killed)
Mohandas Gandhi advocates for nonviolent protests & civil disobedience (refusal to obey unjust laws) Reflect: How have Americans used civil disobedience at different times in our history? Turkey led by Mustafa "Kemal Ataturk" became secular & modernized
Persia became Iran & the shah (leader) emphasized education, industry, & modernization
Zionism (Jewish nationalism) leads to Balfour Declaration (Palestine will be new homeland for Jews according to British mandate) Thought that fighting in WWI would give them independence
When it did not, they felt bitter & nationalism strengthened Great Depression Roaring 20s US leads the world
Industry produces consumer goods in place of weapons (washing machine, radios, cars)
People invest in stocks as market soars Stocks seen as a way to get rich
Everyone wants to buy stock, even if it means using credit ("buying on the margin")
Stock market crashes on Black Tuesday - October 29, 1929 Great Depression 1 in 4 unemployed
President Hoover doesn't want gov't to be involved
Rest of the world falls into depression too Stock Market Crash Franklin D. Roosevelt's
New Deal Increase government spending to jump start economy
Expands welfare and creates jobs
Sets regulations on stock market & banks
Based on John Maynard Keynes idea - govt spends $ to boost economy the years between WWI & WWII Warm Up 1. Who were the following people:
2. What was Germany's predicament in the war?
3. What were the effects of trench warfare?
4. Describe the battle of Verdun.
5. How did women participate in WWI?
6. What are the following:
Zimmerman Note Japan's Imperialism After WWI, it is a major power BUT, it faces 3 struggles:
Western culture emphasized
Few resources Solutions:
Build strong military
Anti-Comintern Pact Rise of
Totalitarian Dictators Benito Mussolini Joseph Stalin Adolf Hitler Fascism Totalitarianism Communism Collectivization Great Purge Nazi Party Nuremberg Laws Kristallnacht Warm Up 1. What countries are in the:
2. Who was the leader of Turkey that wanted to modernize it?
3. What country is Gandhi from and what did he advocate for?
4. What is zionism?
5. Describe the events leading to WWI.
6. Who were the Bolsheviks?
7. Who was Mao Zedong and what did he do?
8. How did FDR fight the Great Depression? Warm Up 1. What were the MAIN causes of WWI?
2. What did the Treaty of Versailles do?
3. What do you think will lead to WWII?
4. Describe several weapons used in WWI.
5. What is mercantilism?
6. What is vernacular?
7. Who was known for the Great Purge?