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Abdulkareem: Geosystems Final Project 2012 Theory

Abdullah & Pablo

Abdullah Abdulkareem

on 8 June 2011

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Transcript of Abdulkareem: Geosystems Final Project 2012 Theory

Geosystems Final Project Polar Shift Supervolcanic Erruption Massive Earthquakes Geological Processes
The magnetic field comes from the rotating liquid metals from Earth’s inner core.
Earth’s crust moves about 10 Km per year
The Sun’s cosmic radiation reaches the earth and is deflected by Earth’s magnetic field.
The Magnetic field is very sensitive, so the smallest tip can lead to a full pole reversal.
Think of Earth as a giant magnet, with a North and South Pole. How Often
750,000 years ago the North Pole was in Antarctica, and the South Pole was in Greenland.
This means that it is time our planet suffers another pole reversal.
We are able to document more than 300 reversals in Earth’s history Effects of This Event
However when the storms are too strong and penetrate Earth’s magnetic field the cosmic energy can cause
the loss of radio communication,
damage satellite electronics,
increase the amount of radiation which the astronauts high altitude pilots will be exposed to,
cause blackouts.
Can shift Earth’s axis.
Change the location of many habitats, which can lead to Ice caps being molten, and tsunamis in coastal areas.
Destructive Earthquakes, Earth’s full lithosphere will change positions in only a matter of days if not hours. Proof of Disaster
The past 20 years the crust has moved 50 Km
The more electronic our planet becomes will mean more activity from the sun, because it will attract the solar radiation.
Surprisingly, our North pole has a southern magnetic field, and the South Pole has a Norther Magnetic Field Will it happen in 2012
in 2012 the earth will be in direct alignment with the Sun & the center of the Milky Way Galaxy, which happens every 25,800 years.
It is predicted to occur in the Winter solstice of 2012 December 21st.
This alignment is expected to reverse Earth’s magnetic field, and cause an almost instant change. Aftermath
The earth will not be habitable afterwards, because most of the habitable land will be destroyed, and each environment will experience temperatures it has never experienced before.
The loss will be significant, and billions of people could easily die, if we factor in the natural disasters it will cause. Geological Processes
Volcanic Eruptions are caused by the release of molten earth and gases form the earth’s core.
The molten earth is pushed upward by pressured gases within the magma itself.
Eruptions tend to take advantage of preexisting fissures or “volcanic necks,” to erupt from.
Definition: must be capable of producing an “ejecta”, or a blast of 1000 + cubic kilometers.
causes: magma accumulates at the surface, and cannot escape - this creates a significant ammount of turgor pressure under the surface. When the pressure grows extremely powerful the flow is unleashed. How Often
The last supervolcanic erruption occured 74,000 years ago
However there have been many major volcanoes erupting in the last decade
In June 12th 1991 Mt Pintabu in the philipines erupted, it was the largest eruption since 1912.
There are 40 supervolcanoes in the world, but most of them are extinct
Yellowstone has been having sevral minor earthquakes in the past few years. Effects of This Event:
Lava disintegrates existing structures including housing and animal habitats
large amounts of ash are carried from the eruption, and disrupt wildlife.
Affected portions of the earth would most definitely not be habitable, due to abnormally high temperatures, lack of nutrients, and absence of wildlife.
It clouded most of the sky and led to a winter which killed two thirds of all the plants and reduced the human population to 10,000, and caused thousands of species to go extinct. Prediction
The Yellowstone volcano erupts every 600,000 years, and the last time it has erupted was 640,000 years ago.
However most volcanists say that it is unlikely to erupt any time soon.
The eruption of a supervolcano can potentially lead to the extinction of humanity
It is highly unlikely that the Earth will be habitable after this event, because the ashes released from the volcano can cloud the sky and force the Earth into an Ice Age.
The damage will probably be permanent, the volcanic eruption may lead to several earthquakes, a change in weather. These two disasters can lead to a domino effect which can lead to tsunamis, more volcanic eruptions, tornadoes, etc. Geological Processes
Occurs when tension is released from the Plates, mainly through the process of Plate Tectonics
The tension is released in the form of seismic waves
Volcanoes, meteor impacts can also cause seismic waves
The plates could move in three ways:
The plates can move due to:
Internal Either the circulation of the magma in the asthenosphere
External A meteor impacting the earth and forcing the plates to move. Effect of this event
Continental shifts, The plates move due to converging/ diverging/ transform boundaries:
Populous displacement
Subduction would take place on a large scale basis
Cause huge Tsunamis
Cause eruption of many giant volcanoes

Bottom line: destruction of homes History of Occurrences
Has been occurring very recently
Japan, March 11, 2011
Chile, February 27, 2010
Haiti, January 12, 2010
Indonesia (prompted a tsunami), December 26, 2004
Indonesia, September 12, 2007
The Earth also began as a giant super continent; Pangaea, and was later on divided into other continents. Is it likely to occur in 2012? Why?
There is no accurate evidence that proves an exceptionally strong earthquake will emerge on the year 2012.
However the pattern of movements during the past few years suggests that it would be of no surprise
The Earth’s crust has moved 50 km in the past 20 years,
Too many major earthquakes have been occurring with very little time between them. Prediction
Already normal earthquakes are the cause of many deaths, we can only imagine the number of people who will die.
However it mostly depends on the location of the Earthquake.
Earth will probably be habitable, but many of the locations which have been hit will be difficult for people to settle on.
Earthquakes make the most permanent damage to the earth, because they do not cause superficial damage, but they cause damage on a much deeper level on the earth. It will cause subduction and the destruction of many plates. This damage cannot be fixed nor replaced. Sources

"Volcanoes." Environmental Science: In Context. Ed. Brenda Wilmoth Lerner and K. Lee Lerner. Vol. 2. Detroit: Gale, 2009. 818-820. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 7 June 2011.

"Why Does the Earth's Magnetic Field Reverse Itself?." 101 Things You Don't Know About Science and No One Else Does Either. 1996. eLibrary. Web. 07 Jun. 2011.

Westrup, Hugh. "POLE REVERSAL." Current Science. 10 Dec. 2010: 6. eLibrary. Web. 07 Jun. 2011.

"Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan (2011)." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. Ed. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner. 4th ed. Detroit: Gale, 2011. Gale Science In Context. Web. 7 June 2011.

"Volcanoes." Environmental Science: In Context. Ed. Brenda Wilmoth Lerner and K. Lee Lerner. Vol. 2. Detroit: Gale, 2009. 818-820. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 7 June 2011.



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