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World Cultures and Geography

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David Skonecki

on 1 January 2016

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Transcript of World Cultures and Geography

World Cultures and Geography
Grade Seven Social Studies
Human Geography
Resources and Economics
Three Types of Resources
Renewable
Resources that nature can replace
Non-renewable
Resources that can't easily be replaced
coal
oil
Unlimited
Resources that never run out
sunlight
wind
An
economy
is the production and exchange of goods and services among a group of people.

Economic systems
are different ways people participate in an economy
Traditional Economy-
Goods and services are traded, but rarely money
Command Economy
- The government controls the economy.
Market Economy
- The people control the economy
Mixed Economy-
a combination of command and market economy
Economic Systems
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
measures the total value of goods and services produced in a country in a year.
Developing Nations
have a low GDP and comparatively few economc resources
Developed Nations
have a high GDP and plentiful economic resources
Measuring the Economy
Exports
are products sold to other nations.
Imports
are products bought from other nations.
World Trade
Why People Move
Causes of Migration
Migration
is when a group of people move from one location to another. A person who leaves one location for another is called an
immigrant
.

Migration occurs because of two main factors:
Push factors
are conditions that push people from one location to another.
Drought
Warfare
Political actions/persecution

Push factors often create
refugees
.

Pull factors
are conditions that pull people from one location to another.
Economic opportunities
Culture
Internal Migration
People move from one place to another within the same country
These people are known as
migrants
.
People will move for both push and pull factors
Weather/Climate
Racial strife
Jobs
External Migration
People move from across a continent or from one country to another.
Where People Migrate
Cultural Effects
People bring their group attitudes, knowledge and behaviors from one region to the next.
If people accept the
culture
of migrants and immigrants, it creates
diversity
.
If people reject the culture of migrants and immigrants, discrimination can occur.
Economic Effects
Positive
Migration can bring people who have special skills or talents, which helps another region's economy grow. Migrations can also help when there is a job shortage in a particular region.
Negative
Migration can create a stress on resources, especially when one region is not ready to accept large numbers of migrants or immigrants.
Migration can also depress wages if there are not enough jobs in a particular region and people have to compete for the jobs that already exist.
The Effects of Migration
Why We Need Government
Types of Government
Representative Democracy
Often known as a
republic
Citizens hold power and rule through elected representatives
Monarchy
A government headed by a king, queen, or emperor
Oligarchy
A government in which a small group of people hold power
Dictatorship
A government in which an individual holds complete power
Communism
All political power and control of the government is held by the government
In a democracy a citizen has both
personal
and
community
responsibilities.
Personal
Take care of yourself and your family
Establish relationships
Know right from wrong
Behave in a respectful way
Community
Obey the laws
Vote
Pay taxes
Serve on a jury
Defend the country
Be an informed citizen
Being an Active Citizen
The Rules of a Government
The Geography of Population
Population Growth
Population
is the number of people living in a specified area.
The
birth rate
is the number of births per 1,000 people.
The
death rate
is the number of deaths per 1,000 people
To find the
rate of natural increase
, subtract the death rate from the birth rate
birth rate-death rate
The largest populations are found in
habitable lands
.
Climate
Elevation
Fertile Soil
Fresh water
Opportunity to earn a living

Population Distribution
Urban
Areas
Urban areas are cities.
One-half of the world's population lives in a urban or suburban setting.
It is estimated that this will grow to 60% by 2030.
One hundred years ago only 14% of the world's population lived in cities
Most people lived in
rural
areas- farms and small villages.
Urban settings have a higher
population density
- a measure of how heavily populated an area is.
Population Density
The way a government works is determined by its
constitution
.
http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/

People and Culture
What is Culture?
Culture: A Way of Life
Culture
is the shared attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors of a group. Culture includes:
Language
Religion
Art
Music
How a group of people lives
What work they do
What they eat
What beliefs they hold
How they use the environment to meet their needs
How they use technology

Anthropologists
are people who study culture.

Cultures can have
ethnic groups
, which are groups of people who share a language, customs, and a common heritage.

People are not born with culture, rather they
learn
it from family friends and others.
Religion
is an organized system of beliefs and practices, often centered on one or more gods. The world's major religions include:
Buddhism
Christianity
Hinduism
Islam
Judaism

All of the world's major religions began in
Asia
and moved to other countries.

Missionaries
are people sent to do religious work in other lands and spread their faiths.
World Religions and Cultures
Language
is human communication. It can be
Spoken
Written
Signed

A l
anguage family
is a group of languages that have a common origin.
WorldLanguages and Culture
How Does Culture Change?
Culture Change and Exchange
Culture changes over time. The changes can be slow or rapid. Culture changes through:
Innovation
Innovation is something that is introduced for the first time.
New ideas, inventions, or patterns of behavior
Can be intentional or accidental.
The invention of fire was probably accidental, but the use of technology is intentional.
Technology
is the use of knowledge, tools, and inventions to solve problems
Domestication
is the raising of plants and animals for human consumption.
The
agricultural revolution
created settled societies, which was different from the
nomadic
ways of humans.
Diffusion
Diffusion is the spread of ideas, inventions, and patterns of behavior from one group to another.
Cultural change can be positive or negative.

Cultural change can be voluntary or forced.

What about the acceptance of cultural change in the United States?
Accepting Cultural Change
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