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Transcript of Netball
Assignment Task - P1 & P2 Presentation
Skeleton & Its functions
The skeleton has 5 functions, which are;
- this is the basic framework of the body and it supports the softer tissues and provides points of attachment for and to most of the skeletal muscles. Our bones provide the rigidity we need to function.
- the skeleton provides mechanical like protection for many of the body's vital internal organs. It also reduces the risk of injury happening to then. An example of this is; the cranial bones protect the brain and the rib cage protects the heart and lungs.
Assisting in movement
- Our skeletal muscles are attached to bones, so therefore then when the associated muscles to them contract, they bones move is time and motion with them. Simply without the strength of our bones we wouldn't be able to move our muscles are anchored to our bones.
Storage of Minerals
- Our bone tissues store a numerous amount of mineral, from Calcium (Ca) to Phosphorus (P). When it is required the bone releases these minerals into the blood, they simplify and ease the balance of minerals in the body. Simply, without the strength of our bones we wouldn't be able to move our muscles are anchored to our bones.
Production of Blood Cells
- The red bone marrow inside the majority of the larger bones are where the blood cells are produced. Most of our blood components are made in the bones.
Overall, there are six types of Synovial Joints.
They are as follows;
- Most commonly found in the neck, it allows you to turn your head from side to side.
- Like in the Knee and the Elbow, it enable movements similar to the opening and closing of a hinged door.
- This joint occurs between the surfaces of two flat bones that are held together by ligaments. Some of the bones in your wrists and ankles move by Gliding against each other.
Ball and Socket Joint
- Found in the hip/shoulder. It is the most mobile type of joint in the human body. They allow you to swing your arms and legs in many different directions.
- The saddle joint is in the thumbs. The bones in a saddle joint can rock back and forth and from side to side but they have limited rotation.
- These are the joints at the base of your index finger, they also allow bending and extending, rocking from side to side, however rotation is limited.
Health & Fitness
Health is defined as a state of complete mental, physical and social well-being; not merely the absence of illness or infirmity. Fitness is the ability to meet the demands of the environment.
Mental benefits include:
improved confidence, a relief of stress/tension and stress related illness
Physical benefits include:
losing weight, an improved posture and an improved body.
Social benefits include:
meeting new people and making new friends.
There are both primary and secondary components of fitness.
The four main primary ones are;
Cardiorespiratory capacity- Aerobic capacity describes the functional capacity of the cardiorespiratory system, (the heart, lungs and blood vessels). Aerobic capacity refers to the maximum amount of oxygen consumed by the body during intense exercises, in a given time frame.
Muscular capacity - Muscular capacity is one of the four components of fitness, which refers to endurance, strength, and power of our muscles. Each one requires a different type of training to improve performance. You would not train muscles for endurance in the same manor you would for power.
Flexibility- Flexibility is the range of motion in a joint or group of joints, or, the ability to move joints effectively. Flexibility is related to muscle strength.
Body Composition- In physical fitness, body composition is used to describe the percentages of fat, bone, water and muscle in human bodies. Because muscular tissue takes up less space in our body than fat tissue, our body composition, as well as our weight, determines leanness.
Netball is a sport played between two teams of seven. It has similar characteristics as the game of Basketball except that continually bouncing or dribbling the ball is not allowed.
There are seven fixed positions per team on the court which are as follows;
Goal Shooter (GS)
Goal Attack (GA)
Wing Attack (WA)
Wing Defence- (WD)
Goal Defence- (GD)
Goal Keeper (GK)
Importance of maintaining the Skeleton
Maintaining healthy bones, joints and skeletal structure is highly important for a healthy life(style). If you fails to maintain your structural system, a downwards effect could occur and this effect is hard to reverse and/or mend, but with proper care of your bones and joints, you may be able to help prevent, minimize or even reduce healing time of bone and joint problems.
Physical exercise more times then not, increases bone growth where a lack of exercise can lead to bone loss.
Cardio/weight-training exercises which are completed between 3 or 4 times a week for up to 60 minutes at a time will significantly aid in the bone growth process and maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
One key component to exercise is
consists of many different muscles that help stabilize ans support the spine and pelvis. Maintaining proper core strength will aid in balance and posture, and will help to control basic movements, it will also transfer energy and disburse the stresses of weight bearing in order to protect your back.
Nutrients are also an extremely important part of maintaining a healthy structural system. Without the proper nutrients, the above statements about exercise are basically pointless.
There are seven major nutrient classes: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, fibers, vitamins, minerals and water. Getting rid of a nutrient from a diet leads to nutrient deficiency and a decline in one or many aspects of your health, so maintaining an adequate and necessary amount of nutrients in a diet is essential for providing energy and building and maintaining a healthy skeletal system.
Deficiencies due to our lack of attention to our needs versus our desires can lead to destruction of our bodies. This destruction is sometimes easily fixed by a change in diet or a little exercise, but years of destruction cannot be mended with a small change. Daily maintenance to our skeletal system is key in order to establish them appropriately and then maintain structural health.
BTEC Level 3
By Mollie Owen
Secondary Components of Fitness
The secondary components of fitness are all involved in physical activity and are essential for every-day functioning. Athletes experience different levels of success depending on how well these secondary fitness components are developed.
The secondary components of fitness are;
Balance is the ability to maintain a specific body position in either a stationary or dynamic (moving) situation.
Agility is the ability to change direction quickly.
Reaction time is the time required to respond to a specific stimulus.
Speed is the ability to move rapidly. Speed is also known as velocity (rate of motion).
Power is the product of strength and speed. Power is also known as explosive strength.
Mental capability is the ability to concentrate during exercise to improve training effects as well as the ability to relax and enjoy the psychological benefits of activity (endorphins).
Coordination is the ability to use all body parts together to produce smooth and fluid motion.
Components of Health
related exercise improves the health related fitness factors which are useful for sportspeople. These are:
is the ability to exercise the whole body for long periods of time and is sometimes called stamina.
is the amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance. It helps sportspeople to hit, tackle and throw.
is the ability to use voluntary muscles many times without becoming tired. It helps sportspeople to sprint or repeat quick actions for longer.
is the range of movement possible at a joint. It helps performers to stretch and reach further.
is the percentage of body weight which is fat, muscle or bone. It helps sportspeople depending on the type of sport they play, eg heavy rugby players are more effective in the scrum than lightweight players, but light long distance runners will always beat heavyweights.
is the differential rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time or how quickly an individual can move. This helps all games players to move into position or get away from opponents quickly.
There are three different types of training and they are all beneficial and important in regards to sports performance as they help and or improve the body in certain ways and they will prepare you differently for the various sports. These are;
When Sprinters require a huge amount of upper body strength and to develop their aerobic fitness, Endurance athletes prefer to work on their aerobic fitness and stamina rather than their physical strength instead for example.
These are the important factors to remember:
Rest for at least a day after heavy exercise to allow the body to repair
Training should be suited to the specific muscle groups used in the sport which is played
Gradually increase training over time
Work with heavier weights than previously to increase strength
If you stop exercising for a long period of time your body will lose its fitness level
Workout at 60-75% of one's maximum heart rate
Tailor a programme to meet your needs
Resistance training involves working against a weight, force or gravity.
Weight lifting is one form of resistance training.
It all depends on the weight you are lifting and how many times you lift it without a period of rest.
If you lift weights that are heavy for you, you will only be able to perform a few lifts without resting.
Improving your performance
This form of weight training develops muscular strength.
When you lift weights that are light for you and you perform lots of lifts without stopping for a rest (say 10 or 15), this form of training develops muscular endurance.
Circuit training is another form of resistance training, often using your own body weight as resistance, through exercises like press-ups and sit-ups.
Circuit training develops muscular endurance and aerobic fitness.
Interval training involves periods of hard work followed by a timed period of rest, repeated several times in one training session.
The periods of hard work are called high intensity activity.
An example of interval training is 10 fast runs over 40 metres, with a two minute rest between each run.
Distance, speed and the length of recovery time can be varied to suit your level of fitness and your sport.
Interval training develops both your aerobic and anaerobic fitness.
Improving your performance
Continuous training involves comparatively easy work performed for a relatively long period.
Cycling at a slow speed for 30 minutes is one example of continuous training.
It helps you to develop your aerobic fitness and muscular endurance.
Top athletes such as Lance Armstrong and Paula Radcliffe often use continuous training to help raise their heart rates to the right level.
It is usually only classed as continuous training if the activity lasts for 15 minutes or more.
In Netball there are several different joints used, synovial joints particularly and specifically. It is not only the joints in our upper bodies which are vital when playing netball, but our lower body joints found in our legs and so forth are also extremely important and needed. The body's ability to sense movement within joints and joint position is called Proprioception. This ability enables us to know where our limbs are in a space without having to look. It is important in all everyday movements but especially so in complicated sporting movements, where precise coordination is essential. This coordinated movement is a result of the normal functioning of the proprioceptive system.
Although there are many skills and joints used in Netball, I have selected three to elaborate on in detail, them being; Shooting, An Overarm Pass and A Chest Pass.
Ball & Socket
Ball & Socket
- Flexion and Extension (In this particular skill but it also has other movements) which are; Abduction, Adduction and Internal & External Rotation.
- Flexion & Extension (In this skill, but it has other movements as well) which are; Abduction, Adduction and Circumduction
Skill Joints Movement
Shooting- Hinge and Ellipsoid/Gliding Joints
Hinge- Flexion & Extension
Ellipsoid- Flexion & Extension (In this skill but it has other movements also) which are; Abduction, Adduction & Circumduction
Chest Pass- Ellipsoid and Hinge
- Flexion and Extension (In this skill but it also has others) which are; Abduction, Adduction and circumduction.
- Flexion and Extension
Joints and bones used in a Netball shot
Hinge and Ellipsoid
are used in the shooting action.
The hinge joint (Elbow/Knee when bending knees for more stature) is flexed and then extended starting when the ball is being prepared to be thrown to when it has been and the action is being followed through with your arms and wrists (extended/flicked).
There are many major
used to perform this skill. Bones range in different shapes and sizes a feature which allows them to perform specialised functions. The main types of bones are long bones which are longer than they are wide and they are used as levers, short bones however which have a short axis and are found in small spaces and transfer forces and lastly ﬂat bones which consist of a broad surface and serve as places of attachment for muscles, protecting vital organs at the same time.
The bones used in shooting in netball is the humorous (long bone, is part of the Appendicular skeleton & is a proximal, anterior and fairly superior bone in the body ), ulna (long bone, Appendicular skeleton & is a posterior, proximal and fairly medial bone), radius (long bone/Appendicular skeleton/ is a lateral, proximal and anterior bone), wrist - carpals and metacarpals (short bones/Appendicular Skeleton/is a proximal & fairly inferior bone).
When the legs are bent; femur (long bone/Appendicular skeleton/is a fairly inferior, anterior & proximal bone), patella (flat bone/Appendicular skeleton/ fairly inferior, proximal & medial bone), tibia (long bone/Appendicular skeleton/is a fairly inferior, medial and proximal bone) and the fibula (long bone/Appendicular skeleton/is a fairly inferior, lateral and proximal bone).
Joints and bones used in a Shoulder pass
A shoulder pass is the action of the arm swinging backwards then upwards in a flexion to extension type fashion, as the elbow moves close to ear level. The throw is then lead forward and a step is taken with the opposite foot to the throwing arm, during the throw, the body rotates to face forward and body weight is transferred from the back to the front foot. The elbow then straightens before the ball is released, with the throwing arm reaching forward and downward action formally known as a flexion to extension movement.
As the shoulder pass is thrown, the follow through with the arms(ball and socket joint), leads onto the wrists (Ellipsoid Joints) as the wrists are flicked at the release of the pass in the direction of the receiver.
There are four compulsory movements involved an shoulder pass, these include; the players standing position (as they stand with one leg in front of the other), the process of bringing back the ball- (player brings back the ball towards their ear slightly rotating the lower part of the body), throwing the ball, (player uses maximum strength to throw the ball extending the arm and ﬂexing the back leg) and finally, ending in a follow through, (back leg ends in a plantar ﬂexion position and the arm is now inferior to the shoulder).
There are many major bones, muscles, joints and joint actions used to perform this skill. Bones range in different shapes and sizes a feature which allows them to perform specialised functions.
The main types of bones are long bones which are longer than they are wide and they are used as levers, short bones however which have a short axis and are found in small spaces and transfer forces and lastly ﬂat bones which consist of a broad surface and serve as places of attachment for muscles, protecting vital organs at the same time.
The bones used in this action are; Scapula (Flat bone & part of appendicular skeleton/is a inferior, fairly superior & proximal bone), Clavicle (Long bone/appendicular skeleton/is a posterior, fairly superior,proximal and medial bone), Humerus (Long bone/appendicular skeleton/proximal,fairly superior, anterior & medial bone), Carpals (Short bone/appendicular skeleton/fairly inferior & proximal) and Metacarpals (Long bone/appendicular skeleton/fairly superior and proximal bone).
Joints and bones used in a Chest Pass
There are two types of joints used in the chest pass (skill) which are the Ellipsoid and Hinge joints.
The Ellipsoid joint, in this skill is a flexion and extension action, at the wrists as the wrists are flexed then extended in a flicking action, from once the ball is held in your hands, with your fingers and hands sporting a W shape, all the way up until the ball is released.
The Hinge joint, in this skill is also a flexion and extension action as the arms are flexed and then extended as the arms follow through after the pass, form the bent (flexed) position they were in when the pass was prepared and hadn’t been taken yet.
The bones used in the action are the Humrus (Long bone & part of appendicular skeleton), Ulna (Long bone/appendicular skeleton) and the Radius (Long bone/appendicular skeleton).
At the wrist, as it extends and pronates the bones involved are again the Ulna and the Radius, but also the carpals.
At the shoulder as it’s flexed, the bones used are; humerus, scapula and the clavicle. At the ankle, as it is plantar flexed, the bones used are; Talus, Tibia, Fibula and the Heel bone.
At the hip as it is flexed, the bones used are; Femur and the pelvis area.
At the knee joint as it’s flexed the bones used are; Tibia (Long bone/appendicular skeleton/is a medial, fairly inferior and proximal bone), Fibula (Long bone/appendicular skeleton/is a lateral, fairly inferior and proximal bone), Patella (Sesamoid bone/appendicular skeleton/ fairly inferior, proximal & anterior bone) and the femur (Long bone infact the longest bone in the body/part of appendicular skeleton/is a fairly inferior,proximal and anterior bone).
What is a Shooting Pass?
You can shoot from anywhere inside the goal circle, but it is essential to have a good view of the ring and a balanced position. The best technique for shooting is to stand with your feet shoulder width apart and keep your body straight, and to balance the ball on the fingertips of one hand and use your other hand to steady its position and the ball has to be steadied and the shot has to be taken quickly as shooters only have 3 seconds to do all of this, take the individual aspects (height/skill and ability of player, weather etc.) of the game into account and then actually take the shot.
The power for your shot comes from the floor, so you need to bend your knees as if you are about to jump into the air, your back should be kept straight and your head should be kept up, looking in the direction of the netball goalpost, but with the ball also in sight. As you prepare to release the ball, drop your hands back behind your head as this is the most accurate way to control the direction of the ball.
You need to get your aim right before taking the shot, so the best thing to do is to try and focus on a point at the back rather than the front of the ring, the reason for this is because the shot is usually short so if you aim for the back its more likely to go in. Try and let the ball go at the same time as you straighten your legs and move your arms as little as possible when you release the ball but add spin by flicking your wrists (Ellipsoid joint).You should end your shot standing on tiptoes with your arms following through towards the ring.
What is a Shoulder Pass?
The shoulder pass is used to cover bigger distances on court than the chest pass. The ball is thrown at a greater height so it's another way you can outwit defenders. You should aim your throw to follow an imaginary straight line between your shoulder and the receiver's hands. Shoulder passes are thrown one-handed so you have to make sure you've got a steady grip on the ball and to ensure that you have complete control of it and then hold it with both hands and bring it up to shoulder level to support it even further.
Place your throwing hand behind the ball with your fingers spread and you will get more power if you move your opposite foot in front of your body. Then, to get maximum power behind the pass, you need to fully straighten your arm. Remember your whole arm, right down to your fingertips, must follow the throw/pass through and you should aim to point your fingers in the same direction as the pass.
An overarm throw is the action of the arm swinging backwards then upwards in a flexion to extension type fashion, as the elbow moves close to ear level. The throw is then lead forward and a step is taken with the opposite foot to the throwing arm, during the throw, the body rotates to face forward and body weight is transferred from the back to the front foot. The elbow then straightens before the ball is released, with the throwing arm reaching forward and downward action formally known as a flexion to extension movement.
What is a Chest Pass?
Your hands should form a W shape behind the ball and you should bring your thumbs together in the centre with your fingers comfortably spread out. When making a pass, step forward with one foot as this will help you get energy and support from the floor as you push through with the ball. Your elbows should be kept close to your body and push through with the ball. As the ball is released, straighten your arms and finger and ensure you keep your wrists pointed upwards to help fully extend your arms (e.g. flexion to extension action)
The player throwing the ball should square up to the target with both shoulders, establish a pivot foot and then step with the opposite foot, passing the ball to their team mate, following through with your hands fully extended and thumbs pointing in and down. The passer should focus on stepping into the pass and on receiving and controlling the pass with both hands so that the netball travels into the hands of the receiver at about chest level.
If you don't look after your bones and joints whilst having an active lifestyle you are likely to develop problems such as Osteoarthritis, Bone Cancer, Brittle bones (due to cartilage being worn away causing bone on bone rubbing resulting in potential Knee or Hip replacement surgery for example), Nursemaid's elbow (usually something only children can get) and many more problems. Here are examples of of what your body parts will end up looking like if you don't maintain your skeleton properly, have a healthy diet and a healthy/active lifestyle, and exercise/warm-up properly (etc) ;
Synovial Joints provide lots of movement at the joint.
They have smooth cartiladge pads at the at end of the articulating bones that meet to make the joint (shock absorbers),
They also have oily synovial fluid filling the space between the cartilage which lubricated the joint and reduces tension and wear.
Surrooudning the synovial joint is a capsule of tough, dense and irregular connective tissue which is lined with the synovial membrane.
Finally synovial joints also have strong bands called ligaments, that reinforce the joint and prevent an undesired movment(s) and dislocation(s) from occurring.
Ulna & Radius
Carpals & Metacarpals
Tibia & Fibula
Flexion to Extension
Painful Tendon & ankle fracture sporting injury
Abduction, Adduction & Circumduction