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Nancy Frye

on 2 February 2016

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Transcript of Attention

Chapter 4
How do we use "attention"?
What are phrases in our culture where the word "attention" is used?
Different types of attention
Competition for attention
Divided attention
Selective attention
Divided attention

Brainstorm in groups
What do these phrases suggest about what "attention" means?
How do these meanings fit in with what the text discussed?
Think back to when you learned to drive
The task started as controlled, and then moved to automatic
How did the feeling of driving change?
Did any parts of driving stay as controlled?
Automatic versus controlled attention
The extent of something being automatic
In groups, write instructions for making a peanut butter and jelly sandwich
Inattentional blindness
Change blindness
Other examples?
Noticing without realizing
which line is longer (told to attend only to the lines - and people don't notice the patterns in the dots)?
People fall prey to Muller-Lyer even if they say they don't notice the pattern in the dots.
Dichotic listening
What usually happens in this research, when people are asked to shadow one message?
What if the message switches ears?
Cocktail Party Effect
Models of filtering attention
Broadbent's model
Which evidence goes against this?
Treisman's attenuation model
attenuation affected by things like how common a word is, whether one's own name is involved
McKay Late Selection
All information is analyzed for meaning
attended ear: "they were throwing stones at the bank"
unattended ear: "river" or "money"
So which is it??
depends on cognitive resources
what if cognitive resources are low?
depends on nature of the task
what if implicitly told unattended ear doesn't matter?
switching between tasks
What do people attend to?
Bottom-up: salience
top-down: take situation into account
von Restorff effect
remember these words:
duck billed platypus
We remember things that stand out
advertisers take advantage of this
but -- if too many things stand out, we don't remember any of them.
Simon effect
Response matters too
We respond better (and more quickly and accurately) if the response goes with the stimulus
e.g., looking for something on the right of the screen, respond more quickly with a button on the right
Attention and searching
Serial versus parallel search?
Implications for number of distractor items?
Parallel search
feature search
look for the red circle
serial search
conjunction search
look for the red circle
To remember:
Full transcript