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SBH4C.01_ The Respiratory System

The presentation describes about the structure and function of the respiratory system. Ventilation and gas exchange are explained in more depth. Also, some diseases affecting the system and a video about the lab investigation procedure is included.
by

Ruby Kim

on 10 May 2014

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Transcript of SBH4C.01_ The Respiratory System

Nasal Cavity
Mouth
Lungs
Bronchus
Bronchioles
Alveolus
Trachea
Epiglottis
Flap in the throat
Blocks windpipe when food/liquid is being swallowed
Branch that splits into
bronchi
Filters the air we breathe
Air tube that branch off of the
trachea
Carries air directly into the
lungs
Balloon-like structures in the chest
Brings oxygen into and expels carbon dioxide from the body
Tiny stretchy sacs where
bronchioles
end up into
Surrounded by capillaries
Blows up like tiny balloons when you breathe in
Gas exchange occurs
Smaller tubes that each bronchus divides into
Structure & Function of the Respiratory System
Gas Exchange
Breathing
Oxygenated blood out
Venous blood in
Carbon dioxide
out
Oxygen
in
Warms, moistens and filters air
inhale
exhale
Pressure inside
decreases
Lungs draw in air
Intercostal muscles
contract
- Ribcage
expands
Diaphragm
contracts

- Volume of chest
increases
When you ...
When you ...
Pressure inside
increases
Lungs force out air
Intercostal muscles
relax
- Ribcage drops back
Diaphragm
relaxes

- Volume of chest
decreases
Intercostal Muscles
Pleurae
Diaphragm
Alveoli
Breathing / Ventilation
Respiration
Moving of the ribs, rib muscles and diaphragm
Moving air into and out of lungs
For gas exchange
Moving air in and out of blood
Need oxygen into blood; need to remove waste carbon dioxide from blood
Occurs in the alveoli
Gases move by diffusion
Adaptation of Alveolus
Breathing
Supplying blood with oxygen
Getting rid of waste carbon dioxide
Sheet of muscles lying across bottom of chest
Helps pumping oxygen into lungs, carbon dioxide out of lungs
Muscles between ribs
Raises ribcage by contracting; lowers ribcage by relaxing
Large surface area
Moist
Thin walls
Surrounded by capillaries
High concentration
of oxygen
Low concentration of oxygen
DIFFUSION
Oxygen diffusion: air in alveoli blood
Carbon dioxide diffusion: blood air in alveoli
oxygen helps build glucose (respiration) for energy; carbon dioxide is formed as waste product from process
Larynx
Pl. Bronchi
Pl. Alveoli
Ribcage
Inhale: breathe in
Exhale: breathe out
Vital capacity (VC)
:
maximum amount of air that can be exhaled from lung
Respiratory system
BY. Ruby, Anne and Andy
BY. Ruby, Andy & Anne
How to dissect -
Divided into right and left passageway
Tissue that covers the wall of nasal cavity contains blood vessels
Heat from the blood warms the air
Factors Affecting Gas Exchange
Area available for diffusion
Distance over which diffusion occurs
Concentration gradient across exchange surface
Speed of diffusion
Large
surface area
Thin
outer membranes
Ways for maintaining steep concentration gradients
Permeability
of gases
Efficient Gas Exchange
Systems need...
Why does the nose have short hairs inside it?
-> To keep dust out of the lungs.
Diseases
Asthma
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Emphysema
Chronic Bronchitis
Pneumonia
Smooth muscle contraction in airway
Chronic inflammation of airway
Fills the alveolar spaces with mucus, inflammatory cells, fibrin
Usually caused by infection
Excessive mucus production in the bronchi
Chronic inflammatory changes in small airways
Destroys the alveolar walls & the lower airways
Caused mainly by cigarette smoking
Lab Investigation
Purpose
* Learn about the structure of the respiratory system
* See how the breathing process works
etc.
Q1) What is the respiratory system?
1. The body's breathing system
2. The body's system of nerves
3. The body's food-processing system
4. The body's blood-transporting system

Q2) Air can enter the body and travel to the lungs ...
1. through the mouth and the nose
2. through the oesophagus and gullet
3. through the windpipe and the pores
4. through the nose and the nervous system

Q3) What is the purpose of the little hairs inside the nose?
1. To fight disease.
2. They serve no purpose
3. To keep dust out of the lungs.
4. To tickle the nose and cause sneezes.

Q4) What happens to the windpipe, or trachea, before it reaches the lungs?
1. It branches in two directions.
2. It branches in three directions.
3. It vibrates and creates sounds.
4. It closes up so that no oxygen can escape.

Q5) What important activity takes place in the lungs?
1. Food is digested.
2. Liquid waste is filtered from the blood.
3. Oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide.
4. The trachea is exchanged for the larynx.

Q6) Oxygen moves from the lungs into the bloodstream through ...
1. nerve fibresa
2. large artery in the heart
3. small blood vessels in the lungs
4. a tube in the lungs called the jugular vein

Q7) Vital capacity is…
1. maximum amount of air that can be inhaled by the lungs
2. maximum amount of air that can be exhaled by the lungs
3. minimum amount of air that can be inhaled by the lungs
4. minimum amount of air that can be exhaled by the lungs


Q8) Describe the structure and function of the lungs.

Q9) Describe how a person goes through the process of breathing and gas exchange and why they are important.

Q10) List and describe some of the impairments and diseases of the respiratory system and its effects.
Assessment Questions
Full transcript