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Copy of Third Conditional
Transcript of Copy of Third Conditional
We use different verb forms in each part of a third conditional:
The structure of a third conditional sentence
If the "if" clause comes first, a comma is usually used. If the "if" clause comes second, there is no need for a comma:
We can use the Third Conditional to talk about 'impossible' conditions, impossible because they are in the past and we can't change what has happened.
if + subject + past perfect verb*
The third conditional (also called conditional type 3) is a structure used for talking about unreal situations in the past. This exposition will explain how the third conditional is formed, and when to use it.
If I had studied harder,
I would have passed the exam.
I failed the exam, because I didn't study hard enough.
I probably would have passed the exam
if I had studied harder.
subject + would (OR could, OR might) + have + past participle
*The past perfect is formed with the auxiliary verb "had", and the past participle (or third form) of the verb.
Note also that third conditional forms can be contracted:
If I had studied harder, I probably would have passed the exam.
If I'd studied harder, I probably would've passed the exam.
Using the third conditional
The third conditional is used to talk about things which DID NOT HAPPEN in the past. If your native language does not have a similar construction, you may find this a little strange, but it can be very useful. It is often used to express criticism or regret:
Criticism: You had an accident because you didn't drive carefully enough.
Regret: We didn't play well, so we lost the game.
Criticism: You didn't save your money, so now you can't afford a computer.
Regret: It didn't snow, so we couldn't go skiing.
If you had driven more carefully, you would not have had an accident.
If we had played a little better, we could have won the game.
If you had saved your money, you could have bought a computer.
If it had snowed, we could have gone skiing.
If I had won the lottery, I would have traveled around the world.
Si yo hubiera ganado la lotería, habría viajado por todo el mundo.
If I hadn't been so busy, I could have helped you.
Si no hubiese estado tan ocupado, te podría haber ayudado.
If we had studied harder, we might have passed the test.
Si hubiésemos estudiado más duro, podríamos haber aprobado la prueba.
Like the other conditionals, a third conditional sentence consists of two clauses, an "if" clause and a main clause