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Reproductive Barriers

AP Bio project

AP Bio Class

on 1 June 2011

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Transcript of Reproductive Barriers

Reproductive Isolation What exactly is reproductive isolation? Reproductive isolation is when there are biological factors that restrict two species from producing viable, fertile offspring What type of barriers are there? There are two types of barriers: Prezygotic barriers Postzygotic barriers A prezygotic barrier is when fertilizatation is unable occur A postzygotic barrier is when a sperm cell from one species is able to fertilize an ovum from another species. However, reproductive isolation will still occur There are 5 prezygotic barriers Habitat Isolation: Two species are unable to encounter eachother
because of of physical barriers Temporal isolation: Two species are unable to breed because they breed during different seasons or times of day Behavioral Isolation: Two species are unable to breed because courtship rituals are specific to their own species Mechanical Isolation: Two species attempt to breed. However, "mating structures" are not compatible Gametic isolation: The sperm of one species cannot fertilize the ovum
of another species There are 3 types of postzygotic barriers Reduced hybrid viability Fertilization has occured. Unfortunately, the hybrid will not finish
devloping. If it manages to fully develop, it does not have the right
traits to survive Reduced hybrid fertility The hybrid fully develops. However, the hybrid is sterile. That means that it cannot reproduce. Hybrid breakdown The hybrids are able to reproduce. Their offspring will become sterile. Works Cited http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reproductive_isolation#Mechanical_isolation http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evo_44 http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/dox/reproductive_isolation.html Ex: Two different species of raccoons cannot cross the highway. Ex: One species of moth breed at night while
another species breed during daytime. One species of bird find mates by performing
dancing rituals. While another species of bird find mates by bird calling Ex: Ex: Hooked shaped reproductive organ
against a "u-shaped" reproductive organ. Ex: Species A sperm contain 25 chromosomes
while Species B ovum contain 18 chromosomes Ex: Hybrid salamnder unable to develop fully Ex: Horse+Donkey=Mule. Mule is sterile Ex: Two different species of plants produce
fertile offspring. Second generation is sterile
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