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Foundations and Theoretical Forces In Counseling & Psychothe

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Feona Davis

on 8 September 2015

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Transcript of Foundations and Theoretical Forces In Counseling & Psychothe

What is counseling?

Theory – proposed explanations or tested principles or general predictions that are subject to experimentation.

In any counseling or psychology program, classes in theory are arguably some of the most important and relevant courses of study.

Lessons in theoretical insight provide the foundation needed to understand the dynamics of human behavior and choose the therapeutic approach most appropriate to specific clients and situations.

Key Approaches
Counseling and psychology theories are often grouped into four key approaches, known as
the Four Forces: Psychoanalytic,
Cognitive-Behavioral, Existential-Humanistic, Multicultural, and Social Justice.
What is psychotherapy?
Capuzzi & Gross (Eds.) (2007)
Foundations and Theoretical Forces In Counseling & Psychotherapy
Counseling is the professional guidance in addressing conflicts or problems.
Psychotherapy is the treatment of psychological disorders or maladaptive behaviors by a professional technique
Regardless of ones' different theoretical approach, a helping relationship is crucial.

The following are definitive characteristics of a helping relationship :

Initially structured by counselor but open to restructuring based on client needs.
Begins with initial meeting and continues to termination.
All persons involved perceive existence of trust concern and respect and to behave accordingly.
Needs of client take precedence over needs of counselor.
Personal growth of all persons involved.
Safe zone for self-exploration.
Promotes potential.

Cappuzzi & Gross (Eds.) (2007) (p. 4-6)
A Helping Relationship

Stage 1 = Relationship development

Stage 2 = Extended exploration

Stage 3 = Problem resolution

Stage 4 = Termination and follow-up

Stages of helping relationship:
Core Conditions of helping relationships:

Empathic understanding
Respect and positive regard
Genuineness and congruence

Strategies to build & encourage helping relationships include active listening skills:

Attending and encouraging



Reflecting content and feelings

Perception checking and clarifying


Strategies that aid in collecting
info or data:


Strategies that further enhances or promotes or adds depth to the helping relationship:

Non-verbal behaviors = responding /identifying

Capuzzi, D., & Gross, D. (Eds.). (2007). Counseling and psychotherapy: Theories and interventions (4th ed.). NJ: Pearson Publisher

Retrieved from http://www.dictionary.com
F. Davis, LCPC
The Chicago School of Professional Psychology
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