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Neurotransmitters and neurotransmission

Neuroscience Core Lecture
by

Melanie Das

on 12 July 2013

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Transcript of Neurotransmitters and neurotransmission

Neurotransmission and neurotransmitters

Introduction
Body functions are largely controlled and integrated by the central nervous system

Neurotransmission: The process by which a neuron releases signaling molecules which bind and activate receptors of another cell.

Neurotransmitter: Endogenous chemicals
released by neuron to signal
other cells.
Discovery of chemical neurotransmission
Otto Loewi's experiment provided
the first evidence for the existence of chemical neurotransmission
The Structure
of the synapse
Synapse: The site of chemical transmission
Life cycle of a neurotransmitter
After an action potential fires...
Synaptic integration
and strength
Excitatory synapse
Classes of neurotransmitters
Amino acids:
Glutamate, GABA, glycine
Neuroscience Core Lecture
Melanie Das

Amino acids
Biogenic amines
Neuropeptides
Modifications of synaptic transmission by drugs and disease
Glutamate excitotoxicity
Drugs can modulate neurotransmission at many levels
Parkinson's Disease
Botulism
Glutamate: Excitatory

GABA: gamma-aminobutyric acid: Inhibitory

Glycine: Modulates excitatory and inhibitory


Dopamine:
Reward and motor

Norepinephrine

Epinephrine:
Adrenaline

Serotonin:
Motor control and sensations
Endogenous opioids

Substance P

Pain regulators
Acetylcholine

Gases:
Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide




Other...




Antagonistic:
Reduce NT release
Agonistic:
Increase NT release
Spatial summation
Temporal summation
Inhibitory synapse
Acetylcholine, gases...
Peptides:
endogenous opioids, substance P
Biogenic amines:
DA, NE, 5-HT
Clostridium botulinum

Targets SNAREs on excitatory
synapses
Trauma causes cell death

Release of excess glutamate

Results in toxic calcium influx

Propagates death in surrounding
cells
Full transcript