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The American Industrial Revolution
Transcript of The American Industrial Revolution
1881 they began making cigarettes (by hand)
In 1884 they improved and used Bonstack's machine to roll cigarettes
In the 1890's they began buying out competitors and founded the American Tobacco Company (the largest worldwide
By the 1900's controlled 75% of the industry and because of monopoly in 1911 they were forced to split into 4 separate companies
As philanthropist they made donations to Trinity College, which became Duke University
James Duke founded the Duke Endowment which gave money to several colleges/universities, hospitals, children's homes and churches. Impacts on Agriculture Pros The industrialist of the Industrial Revolution have shaped America's industry with effects that last even today. Some had a positive effect, some negative, others both. Inventors The inventors of the Industrial Revolution changed and bettered society with their inventions Transcontinental Rail Road Definition: railroad that connected the Atlantic and Pacific coast Linked all parts of the nation
Raw materials could be easily carried from countryside to factories in cities
Trading expanded e.i. Sacramento to Boston
Gave another incentive to improve steel making
The process of building the railroad gave money to both the East and West cost. The Industrial Revolution completely changed the way people lived, work and had an impact on the social, economic and political lives of Americans. Alexander Graham Bell Thomas Edison Invited during 1860-1900
All of his many inventions were patented
He had 1,093 patents in all, more than any one in past and present US history
His overall goal was to invent useful things
Some inventions include the phonograph, the motion picture camera, the light bulb and the electric power plant, among others. The light bulb might be the most famous and most practical inventions of all time. Previously the only source of light was from an oil lamp, or that of daylight. Unfortuantly there is a time limit on daylight, and oil lamps aren't as bright as light bulbs. Edison's light bulb improved both home and business life, as businesses (and families) were able to stay open later with this new and more efficient light source. Other inventions opened up new industries in America. More industry means more jobs. Just think with out the motion picture camera, there would be no theaters, movies, actors, or present day technology like DVD players. Everything starts somewhere! Born in Scotland March 3, 1847
Bell worked with deaf hearing impaired children
- his inspiration for "electronic speech"
His mother was also hearing impaired
Interestingly enough, even though he was a educated man, he didn't have much knowledge on electricity
Also invited the microphone After 3 years, he invented the telephone in 1876
By 1900, 1.5 million telephones were used in U.S. The invention of the telephone created a new form of communication that has evolved into today's society. There for Bell's telephone has an industry of it's own and has created other industries today as it continues to evolve. (think about how much computers have improved with phones) Henry Ford Born July 30, 1863 in Michigan
Moved to Detroit to get a job and further his "horseless carriage idea"
Both an inventor and industrialist
Completed first car in 1903
This car use gasoline (refined oil) He set up an automobile factory to sell his new invention
Understood the logic of Eli Whitney and used interchangeable parts
He even used Eli's philosophy with people- the assembly line
By 1927, produced 147 cars per hour (1 car every 25 seconds) Ford changed factories and transportation forever. Even though it may seem simplistic, no one had ever used an assembly line before. This allowed factory production to be much more fast and productive. The car provided a more efficient transportation, that could run all day without a break! You can still see his impact today within our personal lifes. (we've had two Ford Taurus' in my life time, FORD-DRIVE ONE. ) Orville & Wilbur Wright Had a more methodical and scientific approach to flight, which lead to their success.
Previously they were bicycle mechanics
Built first wind tunnel for checking the wings of an air craft
December 17, 1903 made first air plane flight (In Kitty Hawk NC)
Covered 120ft during it's 12 second flight
The plane was gasoline powered
They kept the plane and their success on the down low until achieved a patent
Later they remained occupied in the courts suing other people for "infringement of their patents"
Because of this they made a few modifications to the plane designs before Wilbur died of typoid fevor and Orville prepared to sell company
others would carry on the evolution of the plane after the Wrights. The plane eventually became a important form of transportation. Planes allow us to transport things over long distances. But today it seem they have replace trains in passenger travel. Industrialists Andrew Carnegie Was a immigrant from Scotland
Too poor to go to school, worked in a clothing factory as a boy
When he was 24 went to work at the Pennsylvania Railroad
There he learned a lot about business from his boss, Thomas Scott
He then became interested in steel making 1865, he set up companies that built bridges and other equipment for railroads
1870's built the most up-to-date steel mill in the world
This advancement allowed him to produce more steel at a lower price
It made steel more affordable for manufacturers
Steel became the most important building material of the Industrial Era Carnegie acquired his wealth first from stock investments. Later on when he started making his own steel he became wealthy because he had the most advanced technology. Taking this into account I feel Carnegie had a positive affect. He was main player in the growth and improvement of the steel industry. Even though steel replaced iron, it is still a benefit because steel is a better building material and provided many jobs. John D. Rockefeller An Ohio business man
When oil was first discovered, John was the one who realized that oil needed to be "refined" so it could have more use, and so you could make more money off of it
1863 he and his partners, built the first refinery
Later Rockefeller bought out his partners and established the Standard Oil Company
His company controlled 90% of the refining industry by the 1880's Men like Rockefeller, have a negative effect on our economy today and in the past. Rockefeller maintained a monopoly of the oil industry for a bit of time. People who drilled for crude oil needed to have it refined, and Rockefeller owned 90% of that industry. Like wise when the public bought oil for various uses, it was from the Standard Oil Co. In addition Rockefeller bought out his competition and used his stocks to fix prices so they couldn't compete. Cornelius Vanderbilt Cornelius and William had a large railroad and steamship empire, needless to say they had money.
He did not flaunt his money by having big homes or giving to charities.
The only charity was to build Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee
His son built a palace near Asheville, the Biltmore House
This house had all the latest technology of their time (heating, air, elevators and intercoms) Even though Vanderbilt wasn't exactly a philanthropist, he also did not monopolize his industries (steam boats, and the rail roads). In fact he supported someone in court against a monopoly in the Gibbons v. Ogden. case. For this reason I feel Vanderbilt had a positive effect on society, even if it was a more subtle approach. Cons farmers became more productive by new methods of farming e.i. crop rotation
1850's began using fertilizers
1870's began using pesticides
Factories produce new and improved farming tool e.i steel plows and.....
Tractors- allowing one man to do work of 12 men and 50 horses
Caused greater production of crops and made farming easier
Railroads allowed long distance shipping
Phone connected farms nationally
Mail was free in the country and catalogs from places like Sears allowed them to have the latest stuff New technology replaced some farmers so Ex-farmers went to work in factories (good for industry)
With more crops available the prices dropped (farmers loose profit)
Mean while the cost of equipment and rail shipping increased
Caused farmers to get high interest loans from the bank that they often couldn't pay
sharecropping/ tenant farming Because of the struggle of farmers during this time many pros such as government regulation of railroads (1887 Interstate Commerce Act) the Farmers' Alliance and the Populist Party wouldn't have come about. Impacts on Urbanization Pros Cons Ex-Farmers that had been replaced by machines went to work in factories and moved to the city
Immigrants saw job opportunities and moved to U.S. cities
As more people moved into cities, it inspired inventions such as steel frames and electronic elevators
Labor unions were formed
Progresssivism - the "city version of populism", likewise it wanted the government to solve political, economical and social problems in U.S. Caused immigration, which lead to crowded tenements and slums
Low wages, no health benefits, 10+ hour work day
Dangerous machinery -injures and no safety rules
Immigrants faced hostility with Americans as they competed with each other in the job market People who believed in Progressivism generally thought that if we improve ourselves and solve society's problems would could make progress. They caused for reform generally to help those in poverty and to change the government for the better. The Dukes R. J. Reynolds Originally from Virginia, moved here to North Carolina
Began to produce tobacco here after working in his father's tobacco factory back in Virginia
Founded R.J. Reynold's Company which became one of the Nation's leading tobacco producers. Textile Textile is the fabric industry
Often made from cotton
Because of the large demand and an abundance of cotton, the textile industry thrived in N.C.
By 1860 there was 39 cotton mill
By 1900 there were 177 mills, giving 30000 jobs, that produced $28 million worth a goods yearly. Tobacco remained an important industry in North Carolina during this time. Furniture The first factory to make large amounts of furniture was in High Point, NC
The High Point Manufacturing Co. thrived due to good local railroad transport and was near a Hard Wood forest
It was in a rural area, and the citizens there needed jobs
There was also high demand for new furniture
Inspired other furniture companies
NC has a high reputation for furniture quality to this day Railroads NC needed to connect the Eastern and Western part of the state
Felt if Western NC Railroad connected the regions then it would boost the economy
A Southern Railroad that already connected other states (VA and GA) wanted to run through NC
This railroad created the Piedmont Crescent as it ran through Charlotte, Concord, High Point, Greensborough, Durham and Raleigh The Piedmont Crescent remains to be the most densely populated part of NC today due to the railroad. 1877-1913