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Europe: Geography, History, & Culture
Transcript of Europe: Geography, History, & Culture
The Northwestern Highlands
The North European Plain
The Central Uplands
The Alpine Mountain System
Siberia Important landforms & bodies of water:
The Alps, the Ural, Caucasus, & Balkan Mountains
The Rhine, Volga, and Danube Rivers
The Mediterranean, Baltic, North, Caspian, and Black Seas What makes Europe Europe? It is the 2nd-smallest continent but it has had a big effect on world history
We follow and study many European ideas and contributions - from science, art, religion, and politics
Many ancient civilizations - Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, the Ottoman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, the Vikings
Made up of over 40+ countries (this can vary) with a lot of political changes over the last century Europe and Asia are separated by distinct histories (and civilizations) and ways of life (cultures) ***Countries like Russia and Turkey link both Europe and Asia Modifying the Physical Environment Do you remember the four factors that affect vegetation?
(study the map on p. 266) Types of vegetation seen in Europe:
tundra ***Revisit my Prezi on "Natural Resources & Climate" to review the types of climates*** Important Landforms & Bodies of Water Natural Resources Shaped By History Western Europe The Alps Ural Mts. Caucasus Mts. Balkan Mts. Mediterranean Sea Caspian Sea Black Sea Baltic Sea North Sea Atlantic Ocean Danube River Rhine River Volga River Memorize these locations! Most of Europe is wealthy compared to the rest of the world - what evidence supports this?
In Western Europe, water is a valuable resource, using it:
for personal use
to irrigate crops
to transport goods
as an energy source (hydroelectricity) Fossil fuels are located in oil and gas deposits under the ocean floor in the North Sea and Siberia - they must be transported by pipeline!
Coal is formed by ancient plant and animal materials as well and are located in Great Britain, Germany, Ukraine, and Russia
Remember - fossil fuels are non-renewable resources
Russia is known to have great reserves of what? (p. 269 map) Geography
Culture We will learn: Lake Como, Italy Prague Mr. Lubos'
class Many cities blend the old and the new
Prosperity due to industry - factories here produce goods that are in great demand around the world
Not to mention people travel to these cities to enjoy the cultural attractions from the past and present! Eastern Europe has a long history of migration, spanning thousands of years. What are some reasons why people migrate again?
to find places with a good supply of natural resources
to escape enemies or persecution
to find a better life temperature rainfall altitude latitude The wealth & success comes from a rich supply of natural resources such as fertile soil, water, and fuels.
(In Russia however, its harsh climate, frozen rivers, and huge transportation distances make achieving wealth more difficult) Navigable-year round
Begins in the mountains of Germany & flows through 8 countries
Flows into the Black Sea Formed by streams of melting glaciers
Winds for 865 miles through forests, plains, & castles, factories, & cities
Empties into North Sea The largest river in Europe, located in Russia
Flows for 2,291 miles through western Russia into the Caspian Sea
Its tributaries link the Volga into the Arctic Ocean & Baltic Sea
Frozen for 3 months of the year Arctic Ocean Europe is called the "peninsula of peninsulas"
Geography term #7 - a peninsula is a body of land nearly surrounded by water
Look at any map - Europe is nearly surrounded by water! The ancient Greeks were Europe's first great philosophers, historians, poets, and writers. They borrowed from the older civilizations of Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt to develop new ideas. Achievements Greek culture, language, and ideas were spread throughout the Mediterranean by Alexander the great, a king of Macedonia who ruled an EMPIRE during the 4th century B.C.E.
An empire is a collection of lands ruled by a single government
He saw the lands of the Mediterranean, the Middle East (Persia), and Asia The Greeks' observations led to scientific ways of gathering knowledge. Their method of rule led to DEMOCRACY.
An example of this was in Athens, one of over hundred city-states:
Free men were allowed to vote on their leaders, laws, and policies (methods and plans a government used to do work)
Women, slaves, and non-Greeks could note vote
Even then, the idea that people should have a VOICE in how they are ruled had a strong impact on history! Ancient Greece Parthenon Acropolis Alexander the Great After Alexander died, the Romans began building their empire. Augustus, the first Roman emperor, came to power in 27 B.C.E.
His rule began 200 years of Roman peace (called the Pax Romana) - during this time Rome was the most powerful state in Europe! Achievements The fall of a mighty empire:
Hundreds of years of war followed the Pax Romana - more and more soldiers were needed to defend empire's boundaries
Taxes had to be raised to maintain the army and it hurt the economy
Emperors could no longer govern such a huge area and the empire was divided into east and west. The western part crumbled and so did the law & order and trade they had worked so hard for.
What did survive?
The Christian religion was based on the teachings of Jesus Christ, who lived in the region of Palestine.
When the Roman emperor Constantine became a follower of Christianity, the religion spread very quickly
Without the empire, people began to live in difficult and dangerous times. Christianity gave many people hope. The Pax Romana (27 B.C.E. - 180 C.E.) saw:
Magnificent cities being built
New technologies developed (road systems, bridges, tunnels, aqueducts)
Economy prospered (Roman navy grew powerful controlling the seas and promoting trade)
There was law & order throughout the lands
Judges followed written laws to make decisions (sound familiar?) These laws protected all citizens in the empire, not only the rich & powerful. Modern ideas about law & citizenship used by democratic governments are based on Roman law. Ancient Rome Coliseum Roman aqueducts Christianity From the Ancient civilizations of Greece & Rome we have: So why do we care? The Romans thought the law should reflect principles of reason and justice and should protect the citizen's person and property. Their idea that law could be based on fair principles could apply to all people, regardless of nationality was a major contribution. A system of law we follow today. Along with Christianity, FEUDALISM was an important part of society in the Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is the time period that falls between ancient and modern times
Feudalism was a way to organize society when there was no central government And so what next? The Olympic games
Drama & Poetry
Law! The Middle Ages began Serfs Knights The system of
Feudalism Lords & Kings Peasants who farmed the land on manors owned by lords
they were not slaves but hey had to follow the lord's rules Lords (noblemen) collected taxes for the king
Most kings believed they had "divine rule" - that they were appointed by God to rule (many people believed it too)
However, lords began growing richer and more powerful than their king Most knights swore loyalty to the king
Knights were given work - mostly to protect and serve
However again, some knights began to rebel against nobles and kings (and took the law into their own hands) ~2200 2012 146 0 C.E. 800 476 1350s B.C.E. C.E. Ancient Greece Ancient Rome ~1000 The Dark Ages Birth of Jesus Christ The Black Death The Middle Ages/Medieval Age Other periods of history to keep in mind for later:
The Age of Discovery
The Age of Revolution (Scientific, Industrial) (~790 - ~1066) Over the centuries, life in Europe changed:
Serfs bought their freedom from their lords and moved into towns (which turned into cities)
People practiced their trades and took advantage of opportunities
So by the 1400s a new way of life had begun to develop in Europe. Stay tuned! The Renaissance What should we know about Europe today? What is urbanization? The growth of cities
200 years ago, most Europeans worked in agriculture.
Nowadays, because people migrated into cities, most work in factories or in service industries (banking, education, health care)
Urbanization increased after the Industrial Revolution in Europe Eastern Europe At the end of the 13th century an explorer named Marco Polo traveled eastward to Asia and brought back tales of his voyage.
He visited the Spice Islands and had helped spread the desire to explore and trade around the world
Many European explorers afterward would search the globes for routes that led to riches.
But do all explorers find riches? Do all riches last? Hmmmmmmm…. Tell me again about Christopher Columbus.
During this time, the Portuguese sailed down the western coast of Africa. They discovered gold, ivory, and…slaves.
Again spices were very very valuable and these European explorers opened up the world to these goods. France, England, Spain, and the Netherlands (the Dutch) all played important roles. Recall that the Middle Ages ended when:
The Black Death killed almost a 1/3 of Europe’s population. Serfs no longer had to work under lords and the noblemen and kings no longer had a functioning relationship.
Serfs moved into villages which grew and became traders or merchants. Gaining wealth, they created what we call the middle class – a group between the very poor and very rich.
Monarchs (the kings and queens still in control) no longer needed the support of lords. Feudalism was over. The middle class used their money to support artists and scholars.
They had the time to enjoy art and learning. So the Renaissance was the rebirth of interest in learning and art.
It began in Italy in the 1300s, spread all over Europe, and ended around the 1500s. Scholars and artists rediscovered the ideas of ancient Greece and Rome and what they learned changed their culture.
They began writing fresh powerful poetry, built glorious buildings with paintings and sculpture.
Last but not least people focused on IMPROVING this world rather than hoping for a better life after death. We call this Humanism. The Age of Revolution Over time, monarchs unified their individual countries and made them stronger
These kings had absolute power. One example is King Louis XIV of France (1643-1715). Like many kings, he believed his power came from God.
Trade exposed people to different ideas, especially scientific ideas. People began to question their governments and think about change. We call this Revolution. The modern age of science and democracy had begun. For centuries European scientists studied nature to explain how the world fit with their religious beliefs. But during this age scientists made theories on facts by watching carefully (observing) what really happened in the world.
It required new procedures (The Scientific Method) where ideas are tested with experiments and observations.
Ex: We know now that the center of or universe is? The invention of machines meant making goods quickly and cheaply. Huge factories housed the machines.
People left their homes to work in factories and to keep machines. This change in the way goods were made is called the Industrial Revolution (late 1700s and beyond), and changed the ways people lived and worked.
By 1900, factories produced almost all goods in the United States and Western Europe.
The Industrial Revolution changed the lives of people across Europe positively AND negatively. What is multiculturalism? The European Union? Take a look at a modern map of Europe – what do you notice?
High-speed trains makes traveling quick and efficient in Europe
And because of this, goods, ideas, and raw materials can travel quickly as well
Again, it was not always this way. Before World War II, many countries kept their borders closed. In 1950 France and Germany agreed to work together to rebuild. Other nations joined to create the European Union (EU)
The EU now has 27 member nations and works to expand trade in Europe. Their mission? To maintain an alliance that continues to allow people, money, goods, and services to move FREELY among member countries
Only 40 years ago, the EU ended tariffs – fees a government charges for goods entering the country
In 1999, member nations adopted the euro – a single currency used to make trading easier. By 2002, bank notes (cash) and coins appeared 14th-17th century 17th-19th century The Scientific Revolution The Industrial Revolution The Age of Revolution CONCLUSION PROS CONS Here’s an example. The first machines were invented to speed up the spinning of thread and weaving of textiles (cloth products). A human being using a spinning wheel full time for four straight years would be equal to a machine spinning thread in only one day. Speed. Efficiency. Availability. Working conditions in factories were unsafe, factory owners took advantage of workers, wages were low, factory workers lived in cramped, dirty quarters. Conditions eventually improved as workers formed unions to speak up for their rights and work for laws that protected them. Governments realized you have to take care of the workers to maintain their production of goods and to strengthen their economy. Again in the past 200 years life was not always so good. Millions of people left Europe to improve their lives in the U.S., Canada, and South America
But after World War II, workers were needed. Instead, people from other parts of the world started migrating to Europe – so what do they bring?
Most immigrants make changes in their way of life. They may change the way they dress, discover new ways of cooking, or learn a new language in their new country.
Immigration has changed the world – people from many different backgrounds live and work together and so they begin to blend their backgrounds
When a place is multicultural, it means it a culture is influenced by many different cultures
A melting pot vs. a tossed salad The Russian Monarchy Belgium
& the Netherlands Germany France & Italy Cultures of Western Europe Poland The Balkans The Czech Republic Russia Great Britain
& Ireland The United Kingdom is made up of:
These countries all have their own histories and cultures but are ruled by a single government - a constitutional monarchy. What was the Magna Carta? What is a democracy? A republic? Nowadays... These rich nobles (Parliament) gained more and more power. It helped decide what kinds of taxes would be paid by citizens and elected people to serve as representatives.
Representatives stands for a group of people. During the Middle Ages, British kings could not take major actions without the approval of rich nobles.
In the year 1215, they forced King John to sign a document called the "Magna Carta" - strengthening power of the nobles and limiting the power of the king . The Effects of the Magna Carta IN TIME... The U.K. is now a constitutional monarchy. Meaning...
Britain still has a king and queen and may approve or reject laws passed by Parliament
But the royal family cannot make laws or collect taxes. They do participate in national ceremonies and act as representatives for Britain. Queen Elizabeth II The Prime Minister is the chief executive of the United Kingdom. This is David Cameron. This is what modern Parliament looks like. This is where laws are made! It is very similar to our CONGRESS. A democracy (demos + kratos) = people + power
Every single person has a voice in government and that the purpose of the government is to protect the people.
Example - Athens, Greece (Ancient Greece)
A republic (representative democracy)
Citizens vote for representatives to "represent" their issues and concerns. An elected few stands up for the rest of the people.
Example - The Roman Republic (Ancient Rome), The United States & other nations Interestingly enough, much of the land today is below sea level. Dikes (long walls) were built to hold water back - this reclaimed land is called polders.
Control of this area passed down from one European ruler to the next.
Nowadays these two countries are a popular place for tourists where they can learn about Dutch history and culture. So what's the deal with Ireland? Ireland is a separate country that's struggled with independence for years
Irish chiefs, Catholic bishops, Viking invaders, Norman conquerors, British planters - they controlled the land at different times
In 1541, King Henry VIII colonized the land and declared himself King of Ireland and head of the Church Catholics (a sect of Christianity) were persecuted because of their beliefs.
The Irish fought back, demanded equal rights, political independence, and religious freedom
In 1801, England passed the Act of Union, joining Ireland to England
In 1922, a treaty was signed where Northern Ireland would remain part of Great Britain. In 1949, the rest of Ireland was granted independence. 1648 - the Northern Netherlands (Holland) granted independence from Spain.
Industries that helped the grow were:
(+) spice trade
Industries now that help - coal mining, natural gas, dairy & cheese, banking, and tourism 1794 - the Southern Netherlands (Belgium) was annexed by France.
1814 - Both combined to form one kingdom but in 1830 they separated due to differences in religion and language.
Industries that help today? Manufacturing and agriculture. Did you know from the years 1961-1989, there was a wall that separated East and West Germany? To understand why, realize that:
After losing in World War I (1914-1918), the German government had to pay billions of dollars as punishment
Not to mention the economy collapsed and prices soared. The German people, desperate, eventually turned to one man for leadership by 1933...Adolf Hitler. Adolf Hitler & Nazi Germany In 1918, feeling bitter, he promised himself that his country would never suffer again - he became involved in politics and made speeches promising to make Germany great again
When he was dictator, he blamed economic problems on the Jews and other ethnic groups.
He claimed Jews were inferior to Germans, and that Germans were a superior race. His actions led to the start of World War II (1941-1945) as he ordered attacks on neighboring countries and forced them under German rule.
Germany allied themselves with Italy and Japan. The Soviet Union (Russia), the United Kingdom, and the United States were their enemies.
By the end of the war, Europe was in ruins. The world learned that Nazi Germany forced millions of people into death camps. The systematic killing of the 6 million Jews is called the Holocaust. The Berlin Wall The Americans, British, French, and Soviets (Russians) divided Germany after WWII
West Germany became democratic, the East a communist country
In Berlin (the capital), a wall was built to separate the city into two halves - people lived completely different lives on each side
By Nov. 1989, crowds of Germans scrambled along the wall, tearing it apart. A year later, Germany was reunited into one nation. What's important to know about these two countries are that:
Despite rapid changes in industry and cities, cultural traditions and customs are still practiced (especially in the rural provinces and towns in the countryside)
Although people continue to emigrate into these countries, citizens try to preserve their culture France Italy French culture has always been influential. They've produced:
Paris! (it was a center of art after WWI)
cooking...hmmm (especially desserts) The world headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church is in a tiny nation called the Vatican.
It is an independent city-state located in Rome with the pope as the leader
Catholicism united about 1 billion people around the world The process of turning raw materials into finished products! Pssst....what is manufacturing? The city of Milan rivals Paris as fashion capital of the world
Southern Italy is different - farming is how many people make a living. Southern Italian traditions and the family rule everyday life Tower Bridge overlooking the River Thames Buckingham Palace Cliffs of Moira Amsterdam Brussels Grand Palace Square - floral carpet The Brabo Fountain in the Grote Markt Brandenburg Gate Bundestag - Reichstag building Trier, Germany Example of traditional German dress Venice Grand Canal Florence Positano Amalfi Coast So, what to know? While Western Europe explored the world and established colonies, Russia built a vast empire
Russia's history is a story with three themes:
Harsh treatment of the common people
Slow westernization Westernization? What's that? It is the process of becoming more like Western Europe & North America. Examples in history:
Spread of democracy and its values
Spread of Christianity in the New World
Spread of Western lifestyle (fashion, the arts, food)
Spread of English as the unofficial "global" language The U.S.S.R. (Soviet Union) The Russian Federation (Russia) Muscovy (Moscow) was once a collection of lands ruled by weak princes who didn't get along
Kiev (the most important at the time) was ruled by the grand prince.
However between 1238-1240 Mongol conquerors called the Golden Horde came from Asia and conquered it for over 250 years!
The Mongols kept Russian people cut off from culture of Western Europe...they demanded service in the army and high taxes.
Over time the princes gained land and power and overthrew the Mongols. Brief History As Muscovy (Moscow) spread its control over Russia, its grand prince became known as the czar (emperor)
The first czar was Ivan IV, crowned in 1547 (aka Ivan the Terrible)
Peter the Great (1689) and Catherine the Great (1762) opened their court to teachers, philosophers, and scientists of western Europe and encouraged people to adopt western customs
The serfs of Russia wanted freedom however, and the czars did not give it to them. The Russian people were divided into the very rich and very poor. Soviet Communism So in 1905, violence erupted. Serfs and other workers protested and demanded reforms (changes)
Hundreds killed and Czar Nicholas II was forced to establish the Duma
Duma = a congress whose members were elected by the people. However it was not enough to save the monarchy. Later on, WWI also caused severe food and fuel shortages. People were desperate here too.... History usually shows us that when people are not happy with their government, they listen to other leaders who speak out against it.
1917 - Vladimir Lenin and his supporters took over the government and set up a new form of government: Communism.
Communism - a form of unlimited government where the state owns the farms and factories and decides what will be grown and produced
Lenin turned the Russian Empire into the Union of Soviet Republic Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) or the Soviet Union So how else did the Communists rule? They jailed or killed anyone who was en enemy of the Russian revolution
When Lenin died in 1924, Josef Stalin took his place as dictator (a leader with unlimited power)
When WWII ended, the Communists established governments across eastern Europe. An imaginary barrier called the "Iron Curtain" was created, essentially cutting people off from the western world. The United States saw Communism as corrupt for many years. We had different beliefs about how our government and economy should be run.
Both countries developed enough weapons to destroy the planet during the Cold War...a period of great tension without any actual fighting
Remember the Space Race?
Some Russian people lost faith in the unlimited control of the Communist state. Their work seemed to be supporting the state rather than their families. In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev came into power. He granted people more personal freedoms.
By 1991, the Soviet Union broke apart into independent nations struggling for democracy. Communism ended. So how has life changed in modern-day Russia? Since the end of communist rule in 1991, many Russian people are trying to reclaim their culture
The Russian Orthodox Church (Christianity) has been a part of the Russian heritage for hundreds of years
Heritage - the customs and practices that are passed from one generation to the next Ethnic identities are also a part of the heritage. >80% of Russian people are Russian Slavs - they usually speak the Russian language and live in the western parts of the country
More than 75 other ethnic groups live in Russia! Finns, Turks, Armenians, Mongolians, Yakuts, etc.
Muslims make up Russia's 2nd largest religious group, as well as followers of Buddhism. However, ever since the Soviet Union came apart, many non-Russian ethnic groups broke away from Russia to form their own countries. Russia tries to keep its country unified by giving ethnic groups a right to rule themselves.
Still, some insist on complete independence. In turn, the Russian government has to send the army to repress (put down) these movements for independence... Cultures of Eastern Europe Among the groups that migrated long ago to Eastern Europe were the Slavs. They first lived in the mountains until the 8th century when they spread across the region What is an ethnic group? People who share the same culture, a language, and/or religion that separates them from their neighbors
2000 years ago, there was a single Slavic language. Nowadays there are 10 Slavic languages spoken including Russian, Polish, and Czech Do ethnic groups always get along? Polish Hungarians Romanians Czechs Serbs Bulgarians 1918-1992 Ex: Czechoslovakia used to be a single country. The Soviet Union took over and when they dissolved in 1991, the Czechs and Slovaks had different goals on how to run their country. So they decided to split, with little to no violence. They are now two separate nations - the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Ex: Yugoslavia - the Slavs were divided due to religious and cultural differences. This country split in 1991 creating six new countries. War broke out however and thousands were killed.
Ex: 1999 - conflict erupted between the Serbs and ethnic Albanians in Kosovo, a province in Serbia and again in 2001...the future of the region is uncertain. What is NATO? The big takeaway Faberge egg St. Petersburg Winter Palace + Neva River Moscow Siberia Russian ballet An alliance among the U.S., Canada, and other western nations. Formed in 1949, their goal is to protect interests of member nations. They make a promise to defend each other if any of them are attacked.
"If you attack one country, you attack all of them"
September 11 attacks prompted NATO to call on support for the U.S. in its "war against terrorism" Vasily Kandinsky Russia's cultural heritage is rich in religion and art, two things that were severely limited during communist rule. Nowadays they can now be freely expressed. Russia's youth are different from the fact that they can grow up making more decisions for themselves. Russia has produced many great artists, thinkers, and writers. Its heritage includes that of outstanding architecture, religious paintings, great plays, and art
Under communism, the creation of great new works were highly discouraged. The government banned and imprisoned artists.
The only "art" the government approved was propaganda - the spread of ideas designed to support some cause... 1918 - the Czechs and Slovaks joined together to form one nation. They enjoyed rapid growth and prosperity. By 1939, it was one of the 10 most developed countries in the world!
...but the communist takeover in 1948 meant all private property now belonged to the state and so did their human rights
ex: the Soviet Union sent troops to control the people, when citizens protested they were suppressed with harsh punishments Under communism, all goods manufactured in Czechoslovakia were sold ONLY to the Soviet Union or countries under their control
They couldn't compete in world markets like most democratic countries
After the split in 1989, a lot of upgrading was needed to catch up with the rest of the world - quality of products and factories especially
Today Czech businesses and products are improving in the international marketplace Poland has had a rough time during the 20th century:
They were taken over by Hitler prior to WWII
After WWII they were taken over by the Soviets - they had to follow strict rules that governed their economy, education, and free speech
They didn't give up their language or connection to the Roman Catholic Church though! After the fall of Communism, Poland adopted a free enterprise system (like the USA)
Businesses can compete with each other for profit, with little government control
And so small businesses blossomed all over Warsaw (the capital) - their economy began growing faster and faster 60% of Poles live in towns or cities; the government has to respond by building more apartments and expanding suburbs
This new life has its ups and downs - this new way of life has given Poles things they never had before
But also too, there are more people without jobs (under communism, you had a job - though you could not really choose what)
The point is - NOW, the Polish people have their future in their hands The Balkans is a region made up of several countries
from the Turkish word "mountain"
land made up of rugged mountains and surrounded by seas
unfortunately its recent history is marked with wars and conflicts The mountains of the Balkans formed natural barriers
Yes people in this region share the same Slavic background but they belong to DIFFERENT ethnic groups - they have distinct languages and cultural identities!
Even during and after communist rule, many ethnic groups do not get along due to their differences
Even worse - when communism ended and these countries declared independence, the natural resources of the region were divided... Why would certain people want to live, work, and socialize only with people who share their same beliefs? Unfortunately, cultural conflicts resulted in bitter warfare...
ex: Bosnia-Herzegovina - fighting between three ethnic groups occurred --> Serbs, Croats, & Bosnian Muslims
10,000s died and Saravejo (capital) was destroyed. It wasn't until 1995 when they split.
People fleeing to other countries (refugees), bombing raids that destroyed bridges, roads, and railways...it hasn't helped economic development Karpacz Castle Square - Warsaw Rynek Glowny - Krakow Stary Rynek (Old Market) - Poznan Cesky Krumlov Castle Hluboká nad Vltavou Wooden Churches