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A Species Comparison

A comparison of the digestive, circulatory, respiratory, and nervous systems in three different (by phylum) species.
by

William Ju

on 6 June 2012

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Transcript of A Species Comparison

Complete, ciliated, with a mouth, anus and complex stomach
developed vertebrate circulatory system
Introducing...
A Species
Comparison
By Ryan Tyler and Billy Ju
Of Three
Different Species
Red Panda
Red Panda
Firefly
Firefly
Obtaining and using energy through nutrition
What will be discussed?
Means of incorporating and digesting food
How the organism carries out internal transport of nutrients, wastes, and gases using their circulatory and respiratory mechanisms
How the organism's endocrine and nervous system act individually and together in regulating their physiology
Bi logy
Ailurus fulgens
General Information
Length:
56 to 63 cm (22 to 25 in)
Weight:
Males - 3.7 to 6.2 kg (8.2 to 14 lb)
Females - 4.2 to 6.0 kg (9.3 to 13 lb)
Phylum - Chordata
General Information
Phylum - Arthropoda
Diet: Omnivore
Prey: Bamboo, Berries, Eggs
Predators: Snow Leopard, Marten, Human
Atlantic Bobtail
The Digestive System

Nervous System

Fireflies belong to the phylum Arthropoda which includes many insects. Their nervous system can be divided into two parts, the brain and the ventral nerve cord. The head area is made of six fused segments, three of them have clusters of nerve cells called ganglia that are connected directly to the brain, the other three are connected to other ganglia under the esophagus. The thoracic section has one ganglia on each side, and the abdomen has one pair of ganglia per section.
In the endocrine system, the salivitory glands produce saliva that are mixed with food to help break it down furthur in order to increase the amount of nutients are taken in by the food.
Has a digestive tube extending between two openings, a mouth and anus (complete digestive tract/alimentary canal)
As a mammal the Red Panda carries a similar digestive structure to that of a human
Ingestion and mechanical digestion occurs in the mouth of the animal through use of its teeth, tongue, and saliva in the oral cavity.
The Digestive Process
The presence of food in the oral cavity stimulates saliva which helps protect the lining of the mouth and lubricates food for swallowing
The tongue allows for easy chewing of the food and forming of a bolus, a ball of food, which is then pushed back towards the esophagus
The esophagus brings the food down through peristalsis, waves of contraction by muscle walls, into the stomach
Photuris lucicrescens
Diet: Omnivore
Size: Up to 1 in (2.5 cm)
The food is brought down into the stomach. Gastric fluid is secreted from the epithelium with a high concentration of hydrochloric acid and a PH of 2. The fluid is used to disrupt the extracellular matrix that binds cells together in meat and plant material. The acid may also kill most of the bacteria that came along with the food. Pepsin, an enzyme that begins the hydrolysis, or breakdown, of proteins into amino acids. Mucus cells produce mucus which lines the stomach wall. The stomach churns the gastric acid along with the food to create a nutrient rich broth called acid chyme.
In the small intestine, the acid chyme has its acidity offset and proteins hydrolyzed by the pancreatic juice containing pancreatic enzymes. Absorption of nutrients occurs throughout the chyme's journey through the small intestine.
General Information
Phylum - Mollusca
Sepiola atlantica
Length: ~22mm
Diet: Omnivore
Nutrients in the chyme are absorbed through circular folds called villi which contains smaller appendages called microvilli to maximze surface area
From absorption through the microvilli nutrients can directly access blood vessels (capillaries) or lacteals.
In the large intestine, the remaining wastes become more dry and compact as water is reabsorbed
Feces reached the rectum and is removed from the body through the anus
As the panda cannot digest cellulose, it emplys helps from other symbiotic organisms
Digestive System
closed system, with one long enclosed tube (alimentary canal) running lengthwise through the body.
food enters the mouth and gets processed as it travels toward the anus
The first section is the foregut (27) or stomodaeum
The Circulatory System
does not have any veins or arteries
Insect blood called hemolymph
A single blood vessel runs along the dorsal side of the insect
insect circulation system does not carry oxygen
Circulatory System
Closed Circulatory System
1. the right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs through the pulmonary arteries
2. As blood flows through the capillary beds in the left and right lungs, its loads O2 and unloads CO2 -> left atrium
3. Atrium contracts. O2-rich blood flows into the left ventricle and the blood is pumped to the tissues of the systemic circuit
4. Blood leaves through the aorta
5. Blood reaches the capillaries of the head and forelimbs
6. Blood reaches the capillaries of abdominal and hind limbs
General Circulatory Progression
Digestive System
Circulatory System
Molluscs have two pairs of main nerve cords which are the visceral cords which lead to the internal organs and the pedal serving the foot. Both pairs run below the level of the gut, and include ganglia as local control centers in important parts of the body. Most pairs of ganglia on both sides of the body are linked by commissures. The only ganglia above the abdomen are the cerebral ganglia, which are above the esophagus and handle signals from and to the eyes. The pedal ganglia, which control the foot, are just below the esophagus and their commissure and connections to the cerebral ganglia encircle the esophagus in a nerve ring.[9]

The brain, in species that have one, encircles the esophagus. Most molluscs have a head with eyes, and all have a pair of sensor-containing tentacles, also on the head, that detect chemicals, vibrations and touch
Nervous System
Nervous and endocrine systems

The nervous system derives its name from nerves, which are cylindrical bundles of fibers that emanate from the brain and central cord, and branch repeatedly to innervate every part of the body. Nerves are large enough to have been recognized by the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, but their internal structure was not understood until it became possible to examine them using a microscope. A microscopic examination shows that nerves consist primarily of the axons of neurons, along with a variety of membranes that wrap around them and segregate them into fascicles. The neurons that give rise to nerves do not lie entirely within the nerves themselves—their cell bodies reside within the brain, central cord, or peripheral ganglia.

The Endocrine system is a system or hormone producing organs and their roles in the body.
The specific hormones are secreted by glands based mainly in the brain and are then shipped
throughout the body to cells in order to relay a message.
The ventricle of the heart is completely divided into seperate left and right chambers
The left side recieves and pumps only oxygen rich blood while the right side recieves and pumps only oxygen-poor blood
complete segregation between oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood
Food taken up by cells lining the digestive glands arising from the stomach

Then is passed into the blood
Undigested materials
compressed and packaged
Then discharged through the anus into the mantle cavity
Away from the animals in the water currents
Packaging prevents fouling of the water passing over the gills
Excretory functions are carried out by
pair of nephridia, tubular structures that collect fluids from the coelom and exchange salts and other substances with body tissues as the fluid passes along the tubules for excretion
The nephridia empty into the mantle cavity.
Complex Circulatory System
relatively complicated circulatory system for invertebrates
closed circulatory system with three hearts
two branchial hearts at the base of the gills which pump unoxygenated blood through the gills
respiratory exchange between the carbon dioxide and the oxygen occurs
A third ventricular heart pumps oxygenated blood throughout the body of the squid
Respiratory System
Use of gills
Cocurrent Exchange
80% Efficient
Lack of oxygen in water
Continuous flow of oxygenated water
Three sections of alimentary canal performs different process of digestion
salivary glands (30) produce saliva
travels through salivary tubes into the mouth
Saliva mixes with food and breaks it down
initial breakdown of large food particles occurs by saliva
includes the Buccal cavity, the esophagus, and
the crop
stores food before it passes to the midgut
passes to the midgut (13) or mesenteron
where digestion really happens, through enzymatic action
microvilli increase surface area and allow for maximum absorption of nutrients
hindgut (16) or proctodaeum - undigested food particles join uric acid to fecal pellets
rectum absorbs most of water in this waste matter
dry pellet eliminated through anus (17)
Open Circulatory System
flows freely through the body and makes direct contact with organs and tissues
the vessel divides into chambers and functions as the insect heart (14)
Openings in heart wall called ostia
allow hemolymph to enter the chambers from the body cavity
Muscle contractions push the hemolymph from one chamber to the next
vessel directs the flow of hemolymph to the head
Respiratory System
complex network of tubes called a tracheal system
delivers oxygen-containing air to every cell of the body
Air enters through spiracles
valve-like openings in the exoskeleton
At the end of each tracheal branch, a special cell (the tracheole) provides a thin, moist interface for the exchange of gasses between atmospheric air and a living cell
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