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Timeline of Art History
Transcript of Timeline of Art History
3000 B.C.E. Middle Eastern Temple Architecture 690 B.C.E.-590 C.E. Asian Art Architecture of Ancient Greece and Rome 430-480 BC An aqueduct is A water supply channel constructed to convey water from one place to another. By Lindsey Hall History of Art Timeline Neolithic cave art usually consisted of paintings of animals and sometimes men hunting these animals. Stonehenge is a megalithic rock monument of 150 enormous stones set in a purposeful circular pattern, located on the Salisbury Plain of southern England, the main portion of it built about 2000 BC. Middle Eastern Architecture consisted of historic temples, mosques, and exquisite mosaics. The floors and walls were often times decorated with colored, geometric shaped ceramic tiles. The Dome of the Rock is not a mosque, but a Muslim shrine that is built over a sacred stone. This stone is believed to be the place from which the Prophet Muhammad ascended into heaven during his Night Journey to heaven. A slim tower rising from a mosque, from which the adhan, or Islamic call to prayer, may be called. Virupaksha temple is the oldest and the principal temple in Hampi.
This temple is located on the south bank of the Tungabadra river. Having a long history of about 1,400 years, the Temple of the Six Banyan Trees is one of the four best Buddhist temples in Guangzhou and located on the Liurong Road (meaning the Six Banyan Trees Road) in Guangzhou, southern China. Liurong Temple was built in 537AD and was given its current name by the writer and calligrapher Su Dongpo of the Song Dynasty. The production of classic Japanese woodblock prints is a fairly complex process, involving a number of steps, each usually performed by a different person, one skilled in that particular step. The different jobs that one might have in the printmaking process could be the publisher/artist, the block carver, or the printer. Chinese/Japanese calligraphy is a form of writing that's basic concept is to captivate state of mind and soul, and then channel it through the brush onto paper. in calligraphy, the brush line is sweeping and fluid,spontaneous rather than predictable, and irregular rather than regular. There was a time when people did not live in cities, but moved from place to place depending upon where they could find the most plants and animals to eat.When people learned to farm and raise their own animals, they no longer needed to hunt for food. Now many people could live in the same place without having to fight to have enough food for everyone. Ancient Greece and Rome were two civilizations that made significant contributions to society in terms of architecture, government, and sports. The work began under the orders of Pericles to show the wealth and exuberance of Athenian power. The name of the building most likely came from a cult statue of Athena Parthenos housed in the eastern room of the building. This magnificent structure was built of ivory and gold and was sculptured by the renowned sculptor Phidias. As with most buildings on the Acropolis it was dedicated to Athena to thank the Goddess for their success. Advanced roads and road networks were first developed in ancient Rome. Even today, the standard width of roads continues to be modeled upon those set in Rome. Triumphal arches, aqueducts and water pumps were invented during this era or were greatly improved upon. Cement that would cure more quickly was created when the ancient Romans realized that adding pozzolanic earth made it waterproof and solid. The first use of reinforced concrete also likely occurred during this time, when builders added metal bars into the concrete to give it added strength. The Colosseum is probably the most impressive building of the Roman Empire. Originally known as the Flavian Amphitheater, it was the largest building of the era. In ancient architecture frieze can refer to any long horizontal decorative panel or a section of the entablature, or horizontal moldigs and bands located immediately above columns, above the architrave and below the capital. Baroque 1600 Baroque is a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance and music. The style began around 1600 in Rome, Italy and spread to most of Europe. Modern American Art
(1920-present) Fallingwater, also known as the Kaufmann House Frank Lloyd Wright was an American architect, interior designer, writer and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures and completed 500 works. He was born in Richland Center, Wisconsin on June 8, 1867. the Guggenheim Museum in New York Vault Dome Arch Renaissance is the French word for rebirth. It is the time of change that happened in Europe between the 14th and 16th centuries. It was an age of growth in Europe. New, powerful city states emerged. A new middle class had more and more money to spend. Great artists, writers and thinkers lived during this time Jan van Eyck was a Flemish painter active in Bruges and is generally considered one of the most significant Northern European painters of the 15th century. The few surviving records indicate that he was born around 1390, most likely in Maaseik. He is known for perfecting the newly developed technique of oil painting. Born on April 15, 1452, in Vinci, Italy, Leonardo da Vinci was the love child of a landowner and a peasant girl. He is widely considered to be one of the greatest painters of all time and perhaps the most diversely talented person ever to have lived. His best-known works are two of the most famous paintings of all time, the "Mona Lisa" and "The Last Supper." Michelangelo was born on March 6, 1475, in Caprese, Italy. Born to a family of moderate means in the banking business, Michelangelo became an apprentice to a painter before studying in the sculpture gardens of the powerful Medici family. What followed was a remarkable career as an artist in the Italian Renaissance, recognized in his own time for his artistic virtuosity. His works include the David and Pieta statues and the ceiling paintings of Rome's Sistine Chapel, Fra Filippo Lippi (1406 - October 8, 1469), also called Lippo Lippi, was an Italian painter of the Italian Quattrocento (15th century) school. Lippi was born in Florence to Tommaso, a butcher. Both his parents died when he was still a child. Two popular paintings he is known for are "Madonna With the Child and Two Angels" and "Annunciation" Alessandro Filipepi, known as Sandro Botticelli was born in Florence around 1445 where he would live out the rest of his life. As the youngest of five children, Botticelli’s father, a tanner, allowed him to become an apprentice to a goldsmith. During this apprenticeship, the goldsmith he worked with gave him the name Botticelli, meaning ‘little barrel.’ After a time, Sandro convinced his father that he wanted to study painting and was chosen to be apprentice to the well known painter Fra Filippo Lippi. Lippi was well known for how he used color on church altarpieces and helped Sandro discover a similar style for his own work. Two of Sandro's most famous pieces are "Primavera" and "Mars and Venus". Remembrant was a Dutch painter and etcher. He is generally considered one of the greatest painters and printmakers in European art history and the most important in Dutch history. Two works of Remembrant are "The Anatomy of Dr. Tulp" and "The Nightwatch". Chiaroscuro in art is the use of strong contrasts between light and dark, usually bold contrasts affecting a whole composition. It is also a technical term used by artists and art historians for using contrasts of light to achieve a sense of volume in modelling three-dimensional objects such as the human body. An example of chiaroscuro is "Sacred and Profane Love" by Giovanni Baglione Caravaggio was born as Michelangelo Merisi in Italy around 1571. He was orphaned at age 11 and apprenticed with a painter in Milan. He moved to Rome, where his work became popular for the tenebrism technique he used, which used shadow to emphasize lighter areas. Two of Caravaggio's paintings are "The Calling of Saint Matthew" and "Sick Bacchus". Neo-Classical 18th-19th century Neoclassicism is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theater, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome. The main Neo-classical movement coincided with the 18th century Age of Enlightenment, and continued into the early 19th century, latterly competing with Romanticism. Jacques-Louis David was born on August 30, 1748 in Paris, France. A celebrated painter during the Neoclassical period, his style was more rigid than the ornate, Rococo work that preceded him. Two famous works of David's were "The Death of Marat" and "The Death of Socrates". Thomas Jefferson was America’s first great native-born architect. Though classicism was his foundation, his distinctly American buildings incorporate a “melting pot” of design ideas. Poplar Forest, the Virginia State Capitol, his home at Monticello, and the University of Virginia are considered to be his masterpieces. Romantic REALISM 1840- late 19th Century IMPRESSIONISM/POST-IMPRESSIONISM
19th Century MODERN EUROPEAN ART 1907-1960 Romanticism (or the Romantic era/Period) was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1840. The movement validated strong emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as apprehension, horror and terror, and awe-especially that which is experienced in confronting the sublimity of untamed nature and its picturesque qualities, both new aesthetic categories. John Constable was born in East Bergholt, a village on the River Stour in Suffolk, to Golding and Ann Constable. Two of his works include "Victory" and "Stonehenge". A famed painter in his own lifetime, Francisco de Goya was born on March 30, 1746, in Fuendetodos, Spain. He began his art studies as a teenager and even spent time in Rome, Italy, to advance his skills. In 1770s, Goya began to work for Spanish royal court. In addition to his commissioned portraits of the nobility, he created works that criticized the social and political problems of his era. Two of Goya's works include "The Shootings of May Third 1808" and "Portrait of the Family of Charles IV" The Realist movement in French art flourished from about 1840 until the late nineteenth century, and sought to convey a truthful and objective vision of contemporary life. Realism emerged in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1848 that overturned the monarchy of Louis-Philippe and developed during the period of the Second Empire under Napoleon III. As French society fought for democratic reform, the Realists democratized art by depicting modern subjects drawn from the everyday lives of the working class. Rejecting the idealized classicism of academic art and the exotic themes of Romanticism, Realism was based on direct observation of the modern world. French painter Gustave Courbet went against mid-nineteenth century Romanticism and led the Realism movement towards the beauty of everyday life. Courbet had significant support from his father to become a painter, inspiring him to lead a new movement of painting focusing on rural activities, as seen in "The Stone-Breakers" and "Burial at Ornans". Born into a bourgeoisie household, Edouard Manet was fascinated by painting from a young age. His parents disapproved of his interest, but he eventually went to art school and studied the old masters in Europe. His most famous works include "The Luncheon on the Grass" and "Olympia". He led the French transition from realism to impressionism, and died, in 1883, a respected revolutionary artist. Impressionist painting characteristics include relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), common, ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles. Claude Monet , born in Paris, France, was a founder of French impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature. two of his works are "Water Lilies" and "Bridge Over a Pond of Water Lilies". Vincent Van Gough was a Dutch post-Impressionist painter whose work, notable for its rough beauty, emotional honesty and bold color, had a far-reaching influence on 20th-century art. Two of his works are his self portrait and "Starry Night". Mary Cassatt was an American painter and printmaker. She lived much of her adult life in France, where she first befriended Edgar Degas and later exhibited among the Impressionists. Cassatt often created images of the social and private lives of women, with particular emphasis on the intimate bonds between mothers and children. Fauvism, meaning "wild beasts", was a loose group of early twentieth-century Modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities and strong color over the representational or realistic values retained by Impressionism. Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas. Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde art movement pioneered by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso, and later joined by Juan Gris, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Robert Delaunay, Henri Le Fauconnier, and Fernand Léger, that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music, literature and architecture. Dada was born out of negative reaction to the horrors of World War I. This international movement was begun by a group of artists and poets associated with the Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich. Dada rejected reason and logic, prizing nonsense, irrationality and intuition. Surrealist works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; however, many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artefact. Max Ernst, The Elephant Celebes