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Teaching English as a Global Lingua Franca
Transcript of Teaching English as a Global Lingua Franca
if your students have a specific target culture in which acculturation is desired, where you would be teaching a target pronunciation with an inner-circle pragmatic competence i.e. immigrant populations, students coming to study in an inner-circle country or having job related needs.
if for reasons of affect, or linguistic prejudice, your students have an inner-circle 'native speaker model' i.e. for personal reasons ELF does not meet their needs. Intelligibility rather than near-native like pronunciation; "Those changes that do not impede intelligibility should be recognized as one of the natural consequences of the use of EIL." (McKay)
Receptive skills practice of the many relevant varieties of English that the students will come in contact with
Strong emphasis on cross-cultural communication and developing 'intercultural speakers' What advantages do NNNST have? They serve as an empowering model of a successful bilingual or multilingual. Deep insight into first language interference issues They have valuable knowledge of the local cultural context in which English is used, as well as knowledge of the larger socio-political context and the local educational practices. As NST what are our options? How can we adapt? Seek out course books with source culture content Accept as a professional responsibility the need of ethonographic research on your part in regards to your local teaching context... including local pragmatic norms. Examples of differing linguistic pragmatic norms
'Facework'--delay the introduction of the topic in a conversation
Chinese speakers give reasons or justifications before making a request
The many different ways people respond to compliments depending on their culture
The different genre norms across cultures Andy Kirkpatrick adds these, among other recommendations, to my list:
Just be multilingual and multicultural and ideally know the language of your students!
Understand that the local variety of English is an appropriate and well-formed variety that is not inferior;
Be able to evaluate ELT materials critically to ensure that these do not, either explicitly or implicitly, promote a particular variety of English or culture at the expense of others;
Consider modifying the methodology exported in textbooks. For example, in a classroom in Vietnam the local culture of teaching was not characterized by the Western notions of efficiency, problem-solving, and goal-oriented tasks, but instead was characterized as more about verbal creativity and poetic licence. (Kramsch and Sullivan)
How successful will the "World English Project" be? Will governments invest the funds necessary to adequately train a huge NNST work force to create a new baseline of global bilingualism through English education starting in primary school?
Remedial/quick basic course formats— Joachim Grzega's Basic Global English and Globish
ESP "The notion of appropriate pedagogy should be a pedagogy of both global appropriacy and local appropriation." (Kramsch and Sullivan)
In an EIL context, "individual competence is always partial and subject to compensation and development both for local and global use." (Nunn) Teaching English as
a Global Language Language changes Our students' needs are changing The overwhelming majority of our students are bilingual, learning in culturally diverse contexts for multicultural interactions, using English as a common language in international and even intranational exchanges, such as in India and Africa. (Kirkpatrick) Our NS biases and our teaching objectives should be changing in response. "Eft he axode, hu ðære ðeode nama wære þe hi of comon. Him wæs geandwyrd, þæt hi Angle genemnode wæron. Þa cwæð he, "Rihtlice hi sind Angle gehatene, for ðan ðe hi engla wlite habbað, and swilcum gedafenað þæt hi on heofonum engla geferan beon." (Aelfric)
English has evolved from this 10th century 'standard English' due to contact and usage, just as it will continue to evolve... Map the feelings of the following conversation onto a global level...with global Englishes being used in particular discourse communities as expressions of identity.
EIL belongs to its users, there is no reason why some speakers should provide standards for others. (McKay) Why should we emphasize inner-circle cultures in course books when our students will most likely be interacting with people from outside the inner-circle countries? How relevant is this unit from a coursebook to them, and what message is it conveying? Our culture as class content may be irrelevant; it is not longer tied to 'our language' when it functions as an international language. What assumptions made in the traditional teaching model of EFL
fail to meet the needs of the majority of
our learners? Outdated thinking:
A monolingual teacher in an 'all English' class
An emphasis placed on inner-circle cultures and ideologies as desireable class content
An assumption that the methodology exported along with course books is always appropriate
The NS teacher is considered the ideal teacher
Inner-circle pragmatics and near-native speaker pronunciation are the teaching objectives What then does make sense when teaching English as a lingua franca? "Students who are learning English in order to study in English-speaking countries only constitute a very small minority of the sum total of English learners. The great majority of learners of English are children." (Kirkpatrick) Emerging niches for NST? Questions left unanswered in the changing landscape of the globalization of English Sandra McKay Less emphasis in production of unnecesary registers of English
Strong emphasis on strategies such as accomodation, appropriate code-switching, clarification, repair, establishing rapport... all embedded in the context of expecting varying cultural pragmatics
Develop awareness of genre differences--textual competence--and the skills to accomodate to different rhetorical styles
Be able to represent the NS variety as a norm rather than a demotivating, unatainable model of correct pronunciation;
Understand the role(s) of English in the community and how these interrelate with other local languages;
Be able to evaluate the specific needs of your students and teach towards those needs.
To what extent will local printing of course books be taken up, to provide source country and other more appropriate cultural content?
To what extent will inner-circle accents maintain their prestige value? Will ELF as a 'practice' or 'set of skills' emerge on the scene as a new 'cool variety' to signal being cosmopolitan?