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Integration of Renewable Energy to Smart Grid

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abdulrahman kassem

on 22 April 2014

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Transcript of Integration of Renewable Energy to Smart Grid

Integration of Renewable Energy to Smart Grid
1. Introduction.
2. Smart Grid (SG).
3. Distributed Energy Resources (DER).
4. Integration of Intermittent Energy Sources to the Grid.
5. Demand Response.
6. Communication.
7. Summary.
1. Introduction
World's population is growing.
Electrification of many aspects of modern life.
Aging infrastructure.
5. Demand Response (DR)
The capability of shedding the loads at peak times
Reducing loads = Increasing generation (for the net power of the grid)
RE generation is weather dependent.
Difficult to schedule their generation or follow load.
Which results in frequency imbalance (generation ≠ load).
Thus, demand response is needed to sustain nominal frequency.
Utilize demand side flexibility to shift its role from passive/uncontrollable to the opposite.
2. Smart Grid

Improve the reliability, efficiency, power quality, and security of the grid.
Real-time and bidirectional operations.
Auto-balancing and self-monitoring.
Accepts power from different fuel sources.
6. Communication
ICT is a fundamental ingredient for smart grid.
Allows bidirectional information & communication architecture.
Provides solid ground for demand management.
(monitoring, analysis, smart metering, etc).
Deficiencies in communication system impact:
system reliability, security, and safety.
Energy flows through power grid .
Information flows through communication system.
communication infrastructure implementation challenges:
capital investment, standardization, and the integration of high quality & low delay infrastructure with power grid

7. Summary
Fossil Fuels are infinite.
Renewable Energy is essential for environmental & other reasons.
Renewable Energy is fluctuated.
Demand side must participate in providing balance.
Smart Grid is the way to achieve this goal.
Smart Grid benefits the advance in communication.
Smart Grid facilitate decentralizing generation to reduce transmission.
With better control, energy resources distribution is enhanced.
it is better to start the standardization for SG now than wait until there are too different standards, because smart grid is the future.
Literature Review

Alternative Energy sources (e.g. renewable energy) have been adopted (reached 480 GW 2013)

Renewable Energy sources (RES) are fluctuated by nature.

Increased penetration of RES requires more flexibility in demand side.
Challenges facing electrical systems
Motivations for SG adaptation
The need for higher reliability and operational efficiency.

Supporting the integration of alternative energy sources.

The need to replace the blind and manual operations.

Meeting the environmental goals.

Enhanced demand response.
Non-clear and non-defined end state.

Projects include many parties.

Transformation without affecting reliability and the performance of the current grid.

Lack in its standards on international level.

High cost.
3. Distributed Energy Resources (DER)
Small scale electric generator located next to and connected to the load.
With or without an electric grid interconnection.
Built closer to consumers.
Improve the reliability, efficiency, power quality, and security of the grid.
Digital enhancement of the current electric grid infrastructure.
Accepts power from different fuel sources.
utilizes telecommunication technologies.
Real-time and bidirectional operations.
Auto-balancing and self-monitoring.
4. Integration of Intermittent Energy Sources to Grid
in electric system=

High penetration requires prediction and load control for demand response.
e.g. wind power covers the demand of Denmark in many hours.

Smart grid support higher penetration of RE

optimizing generation fluctuation
match load to generatio

1. Introduction
Motivations for SG adaptation
The need for higher reliability and operational efficiency.
The need to replace the blind and manual operations.
Meeting the environmental goals.
Enhanced demand response.
Supporting the integration of alternative energy sources.
The need to reduce the global greenhouse emission.
Global crude oil production has already peaked.
Increasing generation
However, this contradicts with:
Smart Grid impact
Challenges of Smart Grid Projects Implementation
Smart Control Centers
new functions include (monitoring, predictive modeling and security analysis).

Smart Transmission Networks

( provide balance via linking major areas interconnections, better asset utilization).

Smart Substations
( must be digitalized, self-healing, and autonomous, from control centers, etc).
Smart Transmission Grid
Reduce distribution and transmission bottlenecks.
Delay the need for huge investment of large scale generation systems.
improve reliability (dynamic islanding).
Enhance generation efficiency (using waste heat).
Reduce losses (shorter transmission to loads).
Facilitate increasing penetration of renewable energy

Advanced meters
(allow the implementation of dynamic tariffs).
smart appliances
(capability to make automatic decisions)
Moving the grid into "Generation Following"
(via load shaping strategy ).
weather forecasting
(e.g. for wind and solar generation).
Integrated energy system consisting of interconnected loads and DERs.
Operate in parallel with the grid or in an intentional island mode.
Develop DER in power system .
keep power balance and reduce scheduling difficulty.
For utility, microgrid is treated as a single dispatchable load
Ease the complexity of managing and controlling high number of distributed energy resources
Distribution Management
Done in smarter and more
sophisticated way through:
Electric system must maintain BALANCE
Here comes the importance of
Smart Grid
to benefit the technology advance to achieve high RES penetration.
Digital enhancement of the current electric grid infrastructure that utilizes telecommunication technologies.
Challenges of large penetration of intermittent Sources
1- Requires dispatchable supplementary storage devices or integration to grid
2- Requires incentives and regulations through governmental legislations like:
Specifying percentages for electric companies to procure from RE sectors.
Incentives for plants to modernize, renovate and enhance their efficiencies
Adapting labeling programs.
Impact of intermittent sources on the grid
Transmission system
(Good locations for wind or solar might be far from existing transmission )
Distribution system
(e.g. need for higher protection, automation, microgrid capability. etc)
Interconnection standards
(for smooth interconnection)
Forecasting and scheduling issues
Proposed strategies to alleviate the impact of intermittency
1- diversifying collocated renewable resources.
2- hand using geographical dispersed utilities of same renewable resource
Aggregation of either of these two strategies is facilitating to reduce the intermittency impact on the grid
Dynamic Pricing
Regulation Ancillary Services
Five complementary concepts to DR
Evolutionary qualitative extension of DR
DR (controls and aggregates individual loads
at peak times
DD (controls and aggregates individual loads
at all times
Reinforces the integration of more intermittent RES.
Benefits from the flexibility that some electrical devices can offer (e.g. freezers).
Energy Management:
Many concepts have been proposed in the literature to optimally manage energy flow.
[interface between grid operator and individual loads].
Energy Manager
[determine power draw from microgrid to grid].
Real-Time Power Market
[trading platform]
20% of generation exists only to cover peak demand,
Peak demand occurs only at 5% of the time
Shifting demand and dynamic pricing techniques aim at optimally utilizing assets.
Privilege users flexibility optimally, yet maintain comfort.
Implementing this in large scale leads to incredible results
Dynamic pricing = self-interested
= consumers seek low demand times (low price)
= producers seek high demand times (high price)
Fast developing industry in market
Help in the load shaping strategy.
Contribute to balance fluctuations of RE
Significant penetration of PEVs = dramatic raising load peaks.
Avg PEV needs 2-5 hs of charging, yet could be plugged in for 10-15 hours.
Good to provide ancillary services to DD.
Connected to grid for power & internet for communication.
Communicates with aggregator to inform it with the vehicle profile
Aggregator determines how and when a car is charged
Considers balance between driver requirements and grid regulation.
Aggregator receives prices generated by dynamic pricing coordinators, such as PowerMatcher
Involve small amounts of energy.
Essential and valuable due to capability to respond quickly and reliably
Provided in many forms
(e.g. regulation, contingency & flexible reserves)
Regulation is the most important
(requires the fastest control and response)
Conditions for participating loads
1- Need known amount of energy over a certain period of time.
2- Have a slack time= they need only some of the available time to use energy.
3- Do not have critical time to be turned-on
up to 33% of loads would be capable of meeting this above criteria
e.g (
washers, dryers, dishwashers, PEVs, etc).

Power Matcher: Distribution coordinator software for energy real-time markets.

Invented by Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO).

Coordinates electric devices of DERs
(producers and consumers).

Targets DERs, DR appliances PEVs, and storage devices.

Organizes information exchange between agents and auctioneer
(to find equilibrium price).
either receive price signals and forward them to the end users
or receives bids from the end users that that represent the level of
flexibility agents are willing to give.

Facilitates optimizing the usage of RES.

Chosen by the United Nation to be among the list of “
Sustainia 100
” for best powerful sustainable solutions
Communication Systems for Integration of RE to SG
Internet as a communication platform for deploying DD
Several communication systems are able
to provide backbone.

Utilize the existing electrical wires to transport data
Bit rates up to 200 Mb/s
Suitable for real-time data
- electromagnetic interference (unshielded)
- high cost
Power line communication

wireless technologies
Neighborhood Area Networks (NANs)
Reliable connection over long distances between smart meters (at home) and data aggregation points (at central stations e.g. microgrid).

Suitable technologies:
(slices of frequency to different customers = avoid interference & increase spectral efficiency)
3G or LTE
(requires low setup cost, infrastructure already exist)
Home Area Networks (HANs)
- Require technologies for short distances (within user house),

- Date volume is low compared to NANs
Suitable technologies:
(Wi-Fi (relatively cheap devices).
(provides less latency than Wi-Fi).
Requirements for implementing demand dispatch
low latency
moderate bandwidth
Internet & its protocols proved the ability to deliver them for many applications
(e.g. VOIP)
Able to adapt & follow up with the dramatic technological changes.
Any 2 devices connected to the internet are able to communicate.
Capable of being platform for deploying demand dispatch.
Thank You
Dr Kamal Al-Haddad & Dr Andrea Schiffauerova
Abdulrahman Kassem
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