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olivia williams

on 9 November 2016

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Transcript of CS5

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is the most common format for text files in computers and on the Internet. In an ASCII file is an alphabetic, numeric, or special character is represented with a string of 7-bit binary number of seven 0s or 1.
what is binary

fetch execute cycle
Instructions are fetched one at a time from main memory, decode and executed. Fig. 7.3.3 shows an instruction being fetched , decoded and executed. the result is that the operand part of the instruction is added to the current contense.
The basic operation of a computer is called the ‘fetch-execute’ cycle. The computer fetches the instruction from its memory and then executes it. This is done repeatedly from when the computer is booted up to when it is shut down. (BBC Bitesize)

DreamApplex Notes
The fetch execute cycle is like a builder they have to look at the instructions and get the things they need to build the building.
> Step 1- Fetch Instruction from Memory
> Step 2- Decode instruction and Fetch Operands.
> Step 3- Perform ALU operation
> Step 4: Access memory
> Step 5: Write back result to register file
> Step 6: Update the PC

The Fetch Execute Cycle is like a life cycle (sort of)
Address Bus Data Bus PC
Cache MAR Program Counter
Mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the binary numeral system or base-2 numeral system which represents numeric values using two different symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one). The base-2 system is a positional notation with a radix of 2.

Fetch Execute Cycle
what is binary
Binary is a number system that only uses two digits: 1 and 0. All data that we want a computer to process needs to be converted into binary.The binary system is known as a ‘base 2’ system. This is because:
there are only two digits to select from (1 and 0)
when using the binary system, data is converted using the power of two.
A bitmap graphic is composed of many tiny parts, called pixels, which are often many different colours.Since the computer has to store information about every single pixel in the image, the file size of a bitmap graphic is often quite large.
Vector graphics is the use of polygons to represent images in computer graphics. Vector graphics are based on vectors, which lead through locations called control points or nodes.
A Pixel is a smallest discrete component of an image or picture on a CRT screen (usually a colored dot);
Colour depth is used to describe the maximum number of colours that are used in the image. The higher the number of colours then the more realistic the image will appear.

– What is ASCII and How Does it Help?
Pixelated is an image on a computer or television screen : made up of a small number of large pixels that produce a picture which is not clear or sharp.
Bits, bytes and
nibbles - Hungry??
So computers use binary to store
data in ‘bits’. Each bit can either
be a 0 or a 1. This means that when
we need more options we put more
bits together. When we have 4 bits, it
is called a ‘nibble’ (weird) and when we
have 8 we have a ‘byte’. It may look
like this: 10010011
All computer language is based in binary code. It is the back end of all computer functioning. Binary numbers means that there is a code of either 0 or 1 for a computer to toggle between. All computer functions will rapidly toggle between 00 or 01 at an incomprehensible speed. This is how computers have come to assist humans in tasks that would take so much longer to complete. The human brain functions holistically at much more rapid speeds than a computer in doing other types of very complicated tasks, such as reasoning and analytical thought processes.The code in a computer language, with regard to text that a central processing unit or CPU of a computer will read, is based in ASCII strings that are standardized with strings of zeros and ones that represent each letter of the alphabet or numbers. ASCII stands for American Standard Code Information Interchange, which is a standard of 7 bit binary codes that will translate into computer logic to represent text, letters and symbols that humans will recognize. There are from 0 to 127 numbers or letters represented in the ASCII system.

Each binary string has eight binary bits that will look like a bunch of zeros and ones in a certain pattern unique for each letter of a word. With this type of code, 256 different possible values can be represented for the large group of symbols, letters and operating instructions that can be given to the mainframe. From these codes are derived character strings and then bit strings. Bit strings can represent decimal numbers.

The binary numbers can be found in the great Vedic literatures, the shastras, written in the first language of mankind, Sanskrit, more specifically located in the ChandahSutra and originally committed to text by Pingala around the 4th Century. This is an estimation, as Sanskrit was a language that was only sung many years before mankind had a need to write on paper. Before the need to write on paper, mankind had highly developed memory and so the need to write was not even part of life at that time.

Counterintuitively or surprisingly, in more modern historical documents it is noted that mankind has progressed beyond Sanskrit. There were no written texts as important information was recited verbally. There were no textbooks prior to the creation of binary code, as they were not required. According to the Shastras, mankind became less fortunate and the memory began to decline, requiring texts and books to be created for keeping track of important information. Once this was a necessity, the binary code was first traced to these great texts and then long after that, around the 17th century, the great philosopher and father of Calculus, Gottfried Leibniz derived a system of logic for verbal statements that would be completely represented in a mathematical code. He was theorizing that life could be reduced to simple codes of rows of combinations of zeros and ones. Not actually knowing what this system would be used for, eventually, with the help of George Boole, Boolean logic was developed, using the on/off system of zeros and ones for basic algebraic operations. The on or off codes can rapidly be implemented by computers for doing seemingly unlimited numbers of applications. All computer language is based in the binary system of logic.
So computers use binary to store
data in ‘bits’. Each bit can either
be a 0 or a 1. This means that when
we need more options we put more
bits together. When we have 4 bits, it
is called a ‘nibble’ (weird) and when we
have 8 we have a ‘byte’. It may look
like this: 10010011
8 bits = 1 byte
1024 bytes = 1 kilobyte
1024 kilobytes = 1 megabyte
1024 megabytes = 1 gigabyte
An instruction cycle (sometimes called a fetch–decode–execute cycle) is the basic operational process of a computer. It is the process by which a computer retrieves a program instruction from its memory, determines what actions the instruction dictates, and carries out those actions.
Why do computers use binary?

Binary is still the primary language for computers because of the following reasons.
It is a simple and elegant design.
Binary's 0 and 1 method is efficient at detecting an electrical signal's off or on state.
instruction cycle
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