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Aircraft Navigation System

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by

Prateek Pathak

on 2 May 2014

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Transcript of Aircraft Navigation System

Radio Navigation
Radio navigation provides the pilot with position information from ground stations located worldwide. There are several systems offering various levels of capability with features such as course correction information, automatic direction finder and distance measuring.
Pilotage
Pilotage is the use of fixed visual reference on the ground or sea by means of sight or radar to guide oneself to a destination, sometimes with the help of a map or nautical chart.
Dead Reckoning
"Dead" Reckoning is another basic navigational method used by low speed, small airplane pilots. It is based on mathematical calculations to plot a course using the elements of a course line, airspeed, course, heading and elapsed time. During this process pilots make use of a flight computer. Manual or electronic flight computers are used to calculate time-speed-distance measurements, fuel consumption, density altitude and many other en route data necessary for navigation. 

Aircraft Navigation System
Technical Seminar
on

By: Prateek Pathak
10ME001085

Visual Flight Rules
Visual flight rules (VFR) are a set of regulations under which a pilot operates an aircraft in weather conditions generally clear enough to allow the pilot to see where the aircraft is going.
In this case, a pilot will largely navigate using
DEAD RECKONING
combined with visual observations (known as
PILOTAGE
), with reference to appropriate maps
Pilotage is mainly used by pilots of small, low speed aircraft who compare symbols on aeronautical charts with surface features on the ground in order to navigate.
Disadvantages
Poor visibility caused by inclement weather
A lack of landmarks in a remote area

Pilot unable to identify a landmark or an area.
The main disadvantage of Dead Reckoning is that it is subject to cumulative errors.
For example any slight miscalculation in wind speed or directional sense will be a source of error. And as each estimate of position is relative to the previous one, the errors get cumulative and can bring a drastic change in the course of the aircraft.
Instrumental Flight Rules
Rules and regulations established by the FAA to govern flight under conditions in which flight by outside visual reference is not safe. IFR flight depends upon flying by reference to instruments in the flight deck, and navigation is accomplished by reference to electronic signals.
Bearing Measure Systems
RDF: The first system of radio navigation was the Radio Direction Finder, it worked by tuning in a radio station and then using a directional antenna, the direction could be found.
ADF: Automatic Direction Finder is the oldest radio navigation system still in use. ADF uses Non-Directional Beacons (NDBs) that are simply AM-radio transmitters operating in the Low and Middle Frequency Band from 190 to 535 kHz.
VOR: VHF Omnidirectional Range is more accurate and able to be completely automated. The VOR station transmits two signals, one is constant in all directions, and the other varies the phase relative to the first signal.
Transponder System
Radars and Transponders
The transmitter periodically sends out a short pulse of a powerful radio signal, which is sent into space through broadcast antennas. When the signal reflects off a target, some of that signal is reflected back in the direction of the station, where it is received.
Distance Measuring Equipment
DME as its name states is an electronic device that measures "slant range" from the DME station. Slant range is a measure of an aircraft's position relative to the DME station that incorporates the height of the aircraft, its angle from the ground station
Inertial Navigation System
An inertial navigation system (INS) is a navigation aid that uses a computer, accelerometers and gyroscopes to continuously calculate via dead reckoning the position, orientation, and velocity of a moving object without the need for external references.
Global Positioning System
The basic principles of air navigation are identical to general navigation, which includes the process of planning, recording, and controlling the movement of a aircraft from one place to another.

Successful air navigation involves piloting an aircraft from place to place without getting lost, breaking the laws applying to aircraft, or endangering the safety of those on board or on the ground
Advantages Of ADF
Economic
Easy to maintain
No line of sight required
Advantages of VOR
Disadvantages Of ADF
Susceptible to interference
Bounces around coastlines

More accurate, precise flying
Reliable
Not susceptible to interference
Voice Capable

Disadvantages Of VOR
Costly to maintain
Line-of-sight required

Ring Laser Gyros
They utilize the principle of the Doppler effect.

Two laser beams travel around a closed circuit (made with three or four mirrors) in opposite directions and are sensed by a detector.

When the gyroscope is not turning, the two beams are both at the same frequency and the detector senses a level attitude.

As the gyroscope turns, the two beams have to travel different distances around the circuit
Advantages Of INS
Few moving parts
Small size and light weight
Rigid construction
High tolerance to shock, acceleration, and vibration
High level of accuracy
Low cost over the lifetime of the gyro

Disadvantages Of INS
Expensive
Susceptible to errors
A space based, all-weather, jam resistant, continuous operation, worldwide radio navigation system.
Provides extremely accurate 3D location data
System of 24 satellites, 4 or 5 of which are in view at all times
Each satellite transmits code, which contains satellite position and GPS time
Receiver, knowing how fast signal was sent and at what time, calculates position.

That will be all from my side
Thank You
Full transcript